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Campina Grande, Brazil

The study was conducted with shoot tip explants of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) to identify a viable regenerative process. Shoot tips were obtained from neem embryos cultured alternatingly in DKW medium supplemented with BAP and medium without hormones. Initial shoot development was influenced by cotyledon presence. Basal callus, excised from in vitro stem base, also presented organogenic potential. In some cases, plant lines, obtained from each seed, presented different characteristics. The most common characteristic observed in vitro was callus formation at the stem base. However, the rarest characteristics were stem callus formation and leaf senescence. The regenerated shoot tips were further subculture and rooted on a medium supplemented with IBA so that complete plants could be obtained. The rooted plants were transplanted to a greenhouse and successfully acclimatized. No significant differences in in vivo development were observed between neem plants from callus and from shoot tip propagation. © 2015, Sociedade de Investigacoes Florestais. All rights reserved. Source

Sousa D.M.M.,Federal University of Paraiba | Bruno R.L.A.,Federal University of Paraiba | Dornelas C.S.M.,Federal University of Paraiba | Alves E.U.,Federal University of Paraiba | And 2 more authors.
Revista Arvore

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is a fruit tree native of tropical Africa, belonging to the Leguminosae family and nowadays is spread along tropical regions of the world. Fruit and seed morphologic characterization is important for species identification and has been used in studies on seed germination and vigor. The main aim of this research work was to describe fruit, seed and seedlings morphology as well as characterizing its germination process. Fruit traits analyzed were type, color, dimensions, texture and consistency of pericarp, dehiscence and number of seeds for fruit. On the other hand, seed traits were scored as to color, dimensions, texture and consistency of the teguments, shape, edges, position of hilum and other structures and embryo characteristics. Seedlings were recorded when protophylls development had already been complete. Radicle, collect, hypocotyl, cotyledons, epicotyl and protophyll have been described and illustrated. T. indica presents an indehiscent fruit with dimensions around 7.3 and 9.2cm and containing 1-11 seeds. The embryonic axle is axial and invagined and is inserted into cotyledons. Seed germination is an epigeal-type and seedlings present protophyll composites with 6 and 9 pairs of opposing and glabrous and small leaflets. Source

Junior J.A.S.,Instituto Nacional do Semi Arido | Gheyi H.R.,Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia | Filho D.H.G.,Federal University of Campina Grande | da Dias N.S.,Rural University | Soares F.A.L.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao
Revista Ciencia Agronomica

Hydroponic systems have constituted an alternative for combating the adverse natural factors of agricultural production in the semi-arid regions of Brazil, such as shallow rocky and infertile soils, and the scarcity of good quality water resources (high salt content). This work studied the yield of the sunflower (variety EMBRAPA 122/V-2000) destined for achene and fodder (phytomass) production, grown hydroponically, using coconut fiber as substrate and irrigated with brackish water of varying salinities. The experimental layout used was completely randomized into a 5 × 2 factorial design with three replications, five levels of water salinity and two planting density - with one or two plants per pot being studied. The irrigation water was composed of 50% standard nutrient solution and 50% municipal water supply, with added levels of NaCl, resulting in an eletrical conductivity (ECw) of 1.7; 4.3; 6.0; 9.0 and 11.5 dS m -1. The differential density of the sunflower plants positively affected the yield components of grain and biomass, showing greater viability when using two plants per pot. Source

Fernandes P.D.,Instituto Nacional do Semi Arido | Brito M.E.B.,Federal University of Campina Grande | heyi H.R.,Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia | de Melo A.S.,State University of Paraiba | Carneiro P.T.,Federal University of Alagoas
Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy

Water and soil salinity affects the growth, development and production of fructiferous species, such as citrus. The use of tolerant rootstocks can guarantee the agribusiness of citrus under such conditions. Thus, the sensibility to salinity during the phase of rootstock formation of varieties and selected hybrids was studied. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with five levels of irrigation water salinity [control, tap water with electrical conductivity (ECw) of 0.41 dS m-1, and water with ECw of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1] and seven genotypes, in a randomized block design and five replications each consisting of four plants, during 150 day period. Growth and physiologic variables were evaluated. Significant effects of genotypes and salinity in the variables were observed. The most expressive reduction was found for total dry matter with unit increase of ECw. A linear reduction was observed in hybrids LVK x LVA-009 and TSK x TRENG-256. Among the evaluated genotypes 'Volkamer' lemon was the least sensitive to saline stress. Source

Edvan R.L.,Instituto Nacional do Semi Arido | Santos E.M.,Federal University of Paraiba | Vasconcelos W.A.,Instituto Nacional do Semi Arido | Souto Filho L.T.,Instituto Nacional do Semi Arido | And 3 more authors.
Archivos de Zootecnia

The objective of this experiment was to compare with other fertilizer sources the effect of bovine digestive content on structural, morphogenetic and production characteristics of buffel grass. The study was carried out at Estação Experimental do Instituto Nacional do Semi-árido, located in Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A previously implanted pasture of buffel grass, cultivar Molopo was used. Experimental area was split in 24 (4 m 2) experimental unities and a completely randomized block in a split plot scheme, split at time. Treatments were 5 and 10 ton of dry matter per ha of digestive content or bovine manure. For mineral fertilizer treatment 40:10:40 formule was used applying 200 kg of mix per ha. There was not interaction between fertilization and time cut (p>0.10). Fertilization influenced (p<0.10) fresh matter production; mineral fertilizer treatment presented higher production. For dry matter production difference was verified (p<0.10); cattle manure and digestive content in higher dose resulted in greater productions. Higher (p<0.10) number of tillers was verified for digestive content in higher dose. There was not effect (p>0.10) of fertilization for leaf/steam ratio, leaf appearence rate and number of green leafes per tiller, whereas effect (p<0.10) for phyllocron was obseved, mainly for higher cattle manure dose. With relation to time of cutting there was difference (p<0.10) for fresh and dry matter production, leaf/steam ratio, leaves appearence rate, number of green leaves per tiller, phyllocron and height of cut. The digestive content promote increase in buffel grass production, presenting a viable alternative to be used as organic fertilizer. Source

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