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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Internet search patterns associated with “windows” of collective interest have been increasingly investigated in the field of public health. This article sets out to identify search patterns relating to the quest for information on skin protection after the perception of excessive exposure to UV radiation - the so-called “summer effect” as it is commonly referred to in Brazil. To calculate the number of hits on the Brazilian National Cancer Institute website - a renowned source of information resources on prevention - log analyzer software was used to measure the volume of hits on specific content pages. The pages on skin protection and self-examination (pages of interest) were monitored over a 48-month period. It was seen that, although the monthly average of hits on pages of interest revealed statistically significant annual growth, the results for the analysis of variance showed no significant differences between the number of hits in the summer compared with other months (p = 0.7491). In short, the perception of intense exposure to the summer sun did not encourage further interest to search for information on prevention. © 2015, Associacao Brasileira de Pos - Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.

Suarez-Kurtz G.,Instituto Nacional do Cancer | Pena S.D.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Hutz M.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2012

Background: New drug applications submitted to regulatory agencies in developing countries rarely include data from local clinical trials. We used the FST statistics to explore the pharmacogenomic diversity of the Brazilian population and its potential implications in drug regulatory assessment and decisions. Methods: The FST analyses were based on data for 44 polymorphisms in 12 pharmacogenes among 1034 healthy Brazilians, recruited in four different geographical regions and self-identified as branco (white) pardo (brown) or preto (black). Each region/color group comprised 83-89 individuals. The Utah residents of northern and western European ancestry and Yoruba people from Nigeria, Africa, cohorts of the HapMap project were used as proxies of the European and sub-Saharan African ancestral roots of Brazilians, respectively. Results: Allele-specific FST values for the overall Brazilian cohort revealed low genetic divergence between white and brown (F ST = 0.005 ± 0.006, mean ± standard deviation), white and black (0.013 ± 0.017) and brown and black (0.004 ± 0.005) individuals. However, the distribution of FST values for white vs brown (p < 0.0001, analysis of variance) and white vs black (p < 0.0001) differed significantly across the geographical regions. Considerably larger pharmacogenomic divergence was observed between black Brazilians and Yoruba people from Nigeria, Africa (FST = 0.028 ± 0.035) compared to white Brazilians vs Utah residents of northern and western European ancestry (0.007 ± 0.010). Conclusion: The present FST analyses highlight the challenge faced by Brazilian regulatory agencies when assessing the relevance to Brazilians of pharmacogenomic data derived from foreign populations, with distinct biogeographical ancestries. This challenge is compounded by the heterogeneity of the Brazilian population with respect to the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms across color categories and geographical regions. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.

The study aimed to reflect, based on the theoretical framework of Max Scheler, about the ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses in the ICU, and about the values that guide their actions and decisions,. This is qualitative research, and ten ICU nurses have been interviewed at a university hospital. It was identified the experience of ethical dilemmas related to the terminality related to the limits of intervention and use of material resources, as well as the issue of blood transfusion in case of religious restrictions. The values identified were: respect, dignity of the patient, scientific knowledge, humility, passion for the profession and love of God. The theory of values is an important tool for nursing because it allows the approach of an ethics of humanizing praxis, especially in situations of ethical dilemmas.

Context - The most recent global estimate revealed the presence of about one million new cases of stomach cancer for the year 2008, setting itself as the fourth most common cause of cancer. Objective - The present study aims to assess the trend of mortality from stomach cancer in Brazil according to regions between 1980 and 2009. Methods - Data on deaths from stomach cancer were obtained from the Mortality Information System, and the demographic data, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The rates of mortality were standardized by age according to world population. The trend curves were calculated for Brazilian regions by sex. The technique used was polynomial regression and joinpoint. Results - The tendency for males and females is similar in all regions, although the magnitude is higher among men in all places. Regions Midwest, South, Southeast tended to decline, while the Northern region showed no significant trend, and the Northeast tended to increase. Conclusion - It is therefore a need to evaluate public health policies for gastric cancer aimed at the demographic transition (change of urbanization and lifestyle) that is occurring throughout the country.

Suarez-Kurtz G.,Instituto Nacional do Cancer | Paula D.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Struchiner C.J.,Programa de Computacao Cientifica
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2014

The heterogeneous Brazilian population, with European, African and Amerindian ancestral roots is a model case for exploring the impact of population admixture on the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes, and the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomics trials. Examples drawn from studies carried out by researchers of the Brazilian pharmacogenomics network, support the following conclusions: the distribution of polymorphisms varies across geographical regions and self-reported 'race/color categories, and is best modeled as continuous functions of individual proportions of European and African ancestry; the differential frequency of polymorphisms impacts the calculations of sample sizes required for adequate statistical power in clinical trials performed in different segments of the Brazilian population; and extrapolation of pharmacogenomics data from well-defined ethnic groups to Brazilians is plagued with uncertainty. Data for warfarin and tacrolimus are reviewed to highlight the advantages and challenges of performing pharmacogenomic trials in Brazilians. © 2014 Future Medicine Ltd.

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