Water in the Mendoza, Argentina, food processing industry: Water requirements and reuse potential of industrial effluents in agriculture [A água nas indústrias de alimentos de Mendoza (Argentina): Estimação dos requerimentos hídricos e a potencialidade de reúso na agricultura] [El agua en las industrias alimenticias de Mendoza (Argentina): Estimación de los requerimientos hídricos y la potencialidad de reúso agrícola]
Duek A.E.,Instituto Nacional del Agua INA
Revista Ambiente e Agua | Year: 2016
This paper estimates the volume of water used by the Mendoza food processing industry considering different water efficiency scenarios. The potential for using food processing industry effluents for irrigation is also assessed. The methodology relies upon information collected from interviews withqualified informants from different organizations and foodprocessing plants in Mendoza selected from a targeted sample. Scenarios were developed using local and international secondary information sources. The results show that food-processing plants in Mendoza use 19.65 hm3 of water per year; efficient water management practices would make it possible to reduce water use by 64%, i.e., to 7.11 hm3. At present, 70% of the water is used by the fruit and vegetable processing industry, 16% by wineries, 8% by mineral water bottling plants, and the remaining 6% by olive oil, beer and soft drink plants. The volume of effluents from the food processing plants in Mendoza has been estimated at 16.27 hm3 per year. Despite the seasonal variations of these effluents, and the high sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of some of them, it is possible to use them for irrigation purposes. However, because of these variables and their environmental impact, land treatment is required. © 2016, Institute for Environmental Research in Hydrographic Basins (IPABHi). All rights reserved.
Effect of water deficit irrigation on vegetative growth of young cheery trees (Prunus avium L.) [Efecto del riego deficitario controlado sobre el crecimiento vegetativo en plantaciones jóvenes de cerezo (Prunus avium L.)]
Sanchez E.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria |
Vallone R.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria |
Morabito J.A.,Instituto Nacional del Agua INA
Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2010
Vigorous cherry tree orchards are less precocious and productive, and difficult to manage. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) can be used as a strategy to control excessive vigor. In order to evaluate vegetative growth a two year RDI experiment was conducted in a commercial Bing sweet cherry orchard, planted in dry shallow soil with drip irrigation. The treatments were as follows: T1 = 100%, T2 = 75% and T3 = 50% of full ETc. Terminal and vigorous shoot length, leaf area, leaf dry weight and trunk cross-sectional area were evaluated. Plant water status was periodically measured by midday stem water potential and soil water content by gravimetric techniques. In T3 shoot length, number and length of internodes, number, area, and dry weight of leaves, and trunk area significantly decreased. In T2 shoot, internode and trunk area growth decreased, but the other variables were less affected. Midday stem water potential resulted a good indicator of plant water status. In cheery orchards a carefully managed RDI can be used to control vigor, saving significant amounts of water at the same time.
Halac S.R.,Estacion de Fotobiologia Playa Union EFPU |
Halac S.R.,Instituto Nacional del Agua INA |
Villafane V.E.,Estacion de Fotobiologia Playa Union EFPU |
Villafane V.E.,CONICET |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2014
We carried out experiments using long-term (5-7 days) exposure of marine phytoplankton species to solar radiation, in order to assess the joint effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature on the photochemical responses and photoprotective mechanisms. In the experiments, carried out at Atlantic coast of Patagonia (4318.7′S; 652.5′W) in spring-summer 2011, we used three species as model organisms: the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans, the chlorophyte Dunaliella salina and the haptophyte Isochrysis galbana. They were exposed under: (1) two radiation quality treatments (by using different filters): P (PAR, >400 nm) and PAB (PAR + UV-A + UV-B, >280 nm); (2) two radiation intensities (100% and 50%) and (3) two experimental temperatures: 18 C and 23 C during summer and 15 C and 20 C in spring experiments, simulating a 5 C increase under a scenario of climate change. In addition, short-term (4 h) artificial radiation exposure experiments were implemented to study vertical migration of cells pre- and non-acclimated to solar radiation. We observed species-specific responses: P. micans displayed a better photochemical performance and a lower inhibition induced by UVR than D. salina and I. galbana. In accordance, P. micans was the only species that showed a synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds (UVACs) during the experiment. On the other hand, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was activated in D. salina at noon throughout the exposure, while I. galbana did not show a regular NPQ pattern. This mechanism was almost absent in P. micans. Regarding vertical migration, I. galbana showed the most pronounced displacement to deepest layers since the first two hours of exposure in pre- and non-acclimated cells, while only non-acclimated D. salina cells moved to depth at the end of the experiment. Finally, temperature partially counteracted solar radiation inhibition in D. salina and I. galbana, whereas no effect was observed upon P. micans. In particular, significant UVR and temperature interactive effects were found in I. galbana, the most UVR sensitive species. The joint effects on UVR and temperature, and the species-specific photoprotective responses will affect the trophodynamics and production of aquatic ecosystems in a way that is difficult to predict; however the specificity of the responses suggests that not all phytoplankton would be equally benefited by temperature increases therefore affecting the balance and interaction among species in the water column. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hanela S.,Instituto Nacional del Agua INA |
Hanela S.,University of Buenos Aires |
Duran J.,Instituto Nacional del Agua INA |
Jacobo S.,University of Buenos Aires
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering | Year: 2015
Abstract A treatment system was developed to remove iron-complexed cyanide from wastewaters discharged by small surface finishing workshops. Alkaline chlorination, a widely used treatment method, does not remove iron-cyanide complexes and produces chlorine secondary pollution effects. In this work, the effectiveness of a bench scale system with a UV-ozone step, followed by a fixed bed made of manganese-modified natural zeolite was studied to remove potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) K4[Fe(CN)6]. The system was operated on a semi-continuous basis processing up to 7.2 l batches of synthetic wastewater. The optimal residence time was established by feeding the system with a free iron solution and using a residence time distribution (RTD) model. With the employed experimental conditions, a 66% cyanide removal was observed at the UV-ozone stage. The fixed bed retained 55% of the total iron fed and an additional 5% of iron was precipitated. Cyanide removal was slightly increased by fixed bed up to 68%. This method achieved a significant removal of iron-cyanide complexes. The results were analysed by using an RTD model and a mechanism for the processes occurred was proposed. Technical and economical scaling up conditions must be studied in future works to assess the feasibility of treating wastewaters from small electroplating workshops. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.