Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias

Quito, Ecuador

Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias

Quito, Ecuador
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Fornasini M.,San Francisco de Quito University | Villacres E.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Narvaez L.,San Francisco de Quito University | Villamar M.P.,San Francisco de Quito University | Baldeon M.E.,San Francisco de Quito University
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2012

Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: KBBE.2013.3.1-02 | Award Amount: 1.25M | Year: 2013

LATINCROP objectives are to reinforce agrobiodiversity conservation in the Andean region; to identify promising underutilized species for commercial initiatives and improved food security; and to integrate activities into a strong network between relevant stakeholders in Latin America and the EU. The project will identify attractive species for marginal lands involving novel crop combinations thus establishing robust cropping systems. The underutilized species of the Andes are regarded as extremely nutritious and stress tolerant, hence significant components of human culture at present and in the future, with a vital role in the upkeep of sustainable livelihoods and ecosystem stability. Yet, the loss of species, cultivars and wild relatives, and associated traditional knowledge at the farm level, has a noticeable impact on food security of small hold farming communities and their ability to cope with adverse climates. LATINCROP will address the following themes: (A) Environmental - Conservation of agro-biodiversity, (B) Economic - Sustainable development of bio-economy, (C) Social - Improved food security, and (D) Network - Supporting existing activities into network. The project duration is 48 months to be implemented by a team from Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Denmark, UK and Spain. The project takes stock of related past and on-going projects and will complement them in an integrative approach to obtain long-term results leading to increased food security, on the selected crops among seed, roots and tubers. The principal expected outcome is the strengthening of the conservation of the Andean agrobiodiversity for food security and global bioeconomy. We will improve sustainable use of agrobiodiversity by developing underutilized crops, supporting economic development in Latin America while ensuring mutual interest and benefit with the EU, and creating a network to facilitate transfer of knowledge and technology related to the promotion of underutilized Andean species.

Dangles O.,Laboratoire Evolution | Dangles O.,University Paris - Sud | Dangles O.,Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador | Carpio F.C.,Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador | And 7 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2010

Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people. © 2010 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Melnick R.L.,Pennsylvania State University | Suarez C.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Bailey B.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Backman P.A.,Pennsylvania State University
Biological Control | Year: 2011

Sixty-nine endospore-forming bacterial endophytes consisting of 15 different species from five genera were isolated from leaves, pods, branches, and flower cushions of Theobroma cacao as potential biological control agents. Sixteen isolates had in vitro chitinase production. In antagonism studies against cacao pathogens, 42% inhibited Moniliophthora roreri, 33% inhibited Moniliophthora perniciosa, and 49% inhibited Phytophthora capsici. Twenty-five percent of isolates inhibited the growth of both Moniliophthora spp., while 22% of isolates inhibited the growth of all three pathogens. Isolates that were chitinolytic and tested negative on Bacillus cereus agar were tested with in planta studies. All 14 isolates colonized the phyllosphere and internal leaf tissue when introduced with Silwet L-77, regardless of the tissue of origin of the isolate. Eight isolates significantly inhibited P. capsici lesion formation (p=0.05) in detached leaf assays when compared to untreated control leaves. ARISA with bacilli specific primers amplified 21 OTUs in field grown cacao leaves, while eubacteria specific primers amplified 58 OTUs. ARISA analysis of treated leaves demonstrated that inundative application of a single bacterial species did not cause a long-term shift of native bacterial communities. This research illustrates the presence of endospore-forming bacterial endophytes in cacao trees, their potential as antagonists of cacao pathogens, and that cacao harbors a range of bacterial endophytes. © 2011.

Canadas A.,Technical University of the North, Ibarra | Rade D.,Technical University of the North, Ibarra | Zambrano C.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias
Revista Colombiana de Entomologia | Year: 2014

Field monitoring of Tephritidae populations is fundamental for a modern agricultural management of these insect pest species. Thus, it is necessary to collect data on environmental conditions and their fluctuations with the purpose of determining how they affect the distribution patterns of fruit flies in an important fruit production region like the Santa Elena peninsula. In this study the fruit fly populations were analyzed in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. To reach this objective, maps of land slope, floor texture and climatology were generated and overlapped with 694 georeferenced traps located in the four cardinal points of the Santa Elena region, in a study area of 3.466 ha. The results indicate that the minimum–maximum temperatures, relative humidity, and rainfall were the major climatic factors influencing fly populations dynamics. Soil texture did not have any influence on immature stages (larvae/pupae). Ceratitis capitata was common during the dry season and reached its peak at the end of it. It attacked both early and mid-season agricultural production in the study region. Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. serpentina, A. punensis, A. manihoti, A. chiclayae and A. pickeli, which were also collected, are native species widely distributed. Results highlight the importance of fruit fly management, which is the main limitation for the export of diverse fruits and vegetables produced in Ecuador. © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology.

Henry A.,Pennsylvania State University | Mabit L.,University of Basel | Jaramillo R.E.,Pennsylvania State University | Cartagena Y.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Lynch J.P.,Pennsylvania State University
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Background and aims: Soil carbon storage is an important component of global carbon cycling. Andean Andisols have high carbon content and are vulnerable to erosion because of agricultural intensification and deforestation. This study examines the effects of land use on erosion and soil carbon storage in the Río Chimbo watershed of Ecuador. Methods: Soil carbon content, age, and erosion estimated from 137Cs inventories was measured along an elevational transect under annual cropping, natural forest, páramo, pasture, and tree plantations. Results: Land use, particularly annual cropping, affected 137Cs levels in the upper soil layers, but did not have an impact on total carbon storage to a depth of 1 m. Relative erosion rates estimated from 137Cs inventories at sites under annual cropping averaged 27 t ha-1 y-1 over the erosion rate of non-cultivated sites. A linear relationship was observed between soil carbon age (determined by 14C levels) and 137Cs levels, where pasture sites had lower 137Cs and older carbon compared to natural forest sites. Conclusions: The effects of land use on soil loss in the Río Chimbo watershed suggest a loss and/or removal of soil carbon, particularly under annual cropping. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Arnold S.E.J.,University of Greenwich | Idrovo M.E.P.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Arias L.J.L.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Belmain S.R.,University of Greenwich | Stevenson P.C.,University of Greenwich
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2014

Herbivory defence chemicals in plants can affect higher trophic levels such as predators and parasitoids, but the impact on pollinators has been overlooked. We show that defensive plant chemicals can damage pollinator fitness when expressed in pollen. Crop lupins (Lupinus species from Europe and South America) accumulate toxic quinolizidine alkaloids in vegetative tissues, conferring resistance to herbivorous pests such as aphids. We identified the alkaloid lupanine and its derivatives in lupin pollen, and then provided this compound at ecologically-relevant concentrations to queenless microcolonies of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) in their pollen to determine how foraging on these crops may impact bee colony health and fitness. Fewer males were produced by microcolonies provided with lupanine-treated pollen and they were significantly smaller than controls. This impact on males was not linked to preference as workers willingly fed lupanine-treated pollen to larvae, even though it was deleterious to colony health. Agricultural systems comprising large monocultures of crops bred for herbivore resistance can expose generalist pollinators to deleterious levels of plant compounds, and the broader environmental impacts of crop resistance must thus be considered. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Baldeon M.E.,San Francisco de Quito University | Castro J.,Servicio de Diabetologia | Villacres E.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias | Narvaez L.,San Francisco de Quito University | Fornasini M.,San Francisco de Quito University
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2012

Developing countries are experiencing an epidemic of chronic non-communicable chronic diseases with high socio-economic costs. Studies of traditional foods with beneficial health properties could contribute to diminish these problems. Legumes rich in proteins like Lupinus mutabilis decreases blood glucose and improves insulin sensitivity in animals and humans. We report the results of a phase II clinical trial conducted to assess the role of cooked L. mutabilis and its purified alkaloids on blood glucose and insulin in volunteers with diabetes. Results indicate that consumption of cooked L. mutabilis or its purified alkaloids decreased blood glucose and insulin levels. The decreases in serum glucose concentrations from base line to 90 minutes were statistically significant within both treatment groups; however, there were not differences between groups. Serum insulin levels were also decreased in both groups however the differences were not statistically significant. None of the volunteers in either group presented side effects.

Quito-Avila D.F.,ESPOL Polytechnic University | Alvarez R.A.,ESPOL Polytechnic University | Mendoza A.A.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Maize plants displaying severe mosaic, chlorosis and, in some cases, necrosis were observed in two provinces of Ecuador. Shotgun sequencing of cDNA obtained from double-stranded RNA extracted from symptomatic samples revealed the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV), two components of maize lethal necrosis. In 2015, a survey conducted in Los Ríos, Manabí and Guayas, major maize production areas in the country, showed that the two viruses were present in a significant number of plants. Mixed infections were detected and associated with severe symptoms. MCMV was also detected in two hybrid seed lots, a significant finding for the epidemiology of the disease in Ecuador. The report of maize lethal necrosis, today the most significant virus disease of maize, in Ecuador is of great concern for producers in the South American continent because of the potential of an epidemic as that observed in east Africa in recent years. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging

Papalexandratou Z.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Falony G.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Romanens E.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Jimenez J.C.,Instituto Nacional Autonomo Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

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