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Bautista-Ortin A.B.,University of Murcia | Martinez-Hernandez A.,University of Murcia | Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Gomez-Plaza E.,University of Murcia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines. To confirm this observation, the effect of anthocyanins on the tannin extractability from grape seeds and skin and on the interaction between tannins and grape cell walls suspended in model solutions were studied. The results indicated that anthocyanins favored skin and seed tannin extraction and that there is a competition for the adsorption sites between anthocyanins and tannins that increases the tannin content when anthocyanins are present. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gomez-Plaza E.,University of Murcia | Mestre-Ortuno L.,University of Murcia | Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Fernandez-Fernandez J.I.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Lopez-Roca J.M.,University of Murcia
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2012

Benzothiadiazole and methyl jasmonate have been described as exogenous elicitors of some plant defence compounds. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of benzothiadiazole and methyl jasmonate to Vitis vinifera L. Monastrell grape clusters at the beginning of the ripening process affects the synthesis of volatile compounds in grapes (as has been observed in other fruits) and whether this effect has a technological significance in the resulting wines. Results indicated that both treatments increased the levels of volatile compounds in grapes, especially terpenes and norisoprenoids in benzothiadiazole-treated grapes. The wines obtained from the treated grapes also showed higher levels of terpene and norisoprenoids. Wines from methyl jasmonate-treated grapes had levels of these volatile compounds almost two times higher than the wines made from control grapes. These differences in the volatile compound levels could be sensorially detected. © 2012 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved. Source


Hernandez-Jimenez A.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Lopez-Roca J.M.,University of Murcia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry | Year: 2013

This paper explores the characteristics of the anthocyanin and flavonol composition and content in grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera varieties Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, Monastrell × Syrah, and Monastrell × Barbera, in order to acquire information for future breeding programs. The anthocyanin and flavonol compositions of twenty-seven hybrids bearing red grapes and 15 hybrids bearing white grapes from Monastrell × Syrah, 32 red and 6 white from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, and 13 red from Monastrell × Barbera have been studied. Among the intraspecific crosses, plants with grapes presenting very high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols were found, indicating a transgressive segregation for this character, and this could lead to highly colored wines with an increased benefits for human health. As regards the qualitative composition of anthocyanins and flavonols, the hydroxylation pattern of the hybrids that also may influence wine color hue and stability presented intermediate values to those of the parentals, indicating that values higher than that showed by the best parental in this respect will be difficult to obtain. The results presented here can be helpful to acquire information for future breeding efforts, aimed at improving fruit quality through the effects of flavonoids. © 2013 Alberto Hernández-Jiménez et al. Source


Busse-Valverde N.,University of Murcia | Gomez-Plaza E.,University of Murcia | Lopez-Roca J.M.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Bautista-Ortin A.B.,University of Murcia
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Romero-Cascales I.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Fernandez-Fernandez J.I.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Benzothiadiazole (BTH) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ) have been described as exogenous elicitors of some plant defense compounds, polyphenols among them. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of BTH or MeJ to grape clusters at the beginning of the ripening process had any effect on the accumulation of the main flavonoid compounds in grapes (anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavanols) and the technological significance of these treatments in the resulting wines. The results obtained after a 2 year experiment indicated that both treatments increased the anthocyanin, flavonol, and proanthocyanidin content of grapes. The wines obtained from the treated grapes showed higher color intensity and total phenolic content than the wines made from control grapes. The exogenous application of these elicitors, as a complement to fungicide treatments, could be an interesting strategy for vine protection, increasing, at the same time, the phenolic content of the grapes and the resulting wines. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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