Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario

Murcia, Spain

Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario

Murcia, Spain
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Bautista-Ortin A.B.,University of Murcia | Martinez-Hernandez A.,University of Murcia | Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Gomez-Plaza E.,University of Murcia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines. To confirm this observation, the effect of anthocyanins on the tannin extractability from grape seeds and skin and on the interaction between tannins and grape cell walls suspended in model solutions were studied. The results indicated that anthocyanins favored skin and seed tannin extraction and that there is a competition for the adsorption sites between anthocyanins and tannins that increases the tannin content when anthocyanins are present. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Moreno-Perez A.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Vila-Lopez R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Fernandez-Fernandez J.I.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Martinez-Cutillas A.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The volatile compounds of wines made from three grape varieties (Monastrell, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) using three pre-fermentation techniques (grape freezing, dry-ice and cold maceration) and a control treatment were measured. The different winemaking practices, which are intended to increase the aromatic properties of wines, produced results that depended on the variety concerned. For example, freezing the Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grapes produced different results compared with the respective controls, whereas few changes were found on freezing the Monastrell wine. Differences were significant in the case of some volatile compounds. Linear discriminant analysis allowed some grouping of the varieties at sampling but not of the pre-fermentation techniques used. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Busse-Valverde N.,University of Murcia | Gomez-Plaza E.,University of Murcia | Lopez-Roca J.M.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Bautista-Ortin A.B.,University of Murcia
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Ruiz-Garcia Y.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Gil-Munoz R.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Benzothiadiazole (BTH) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ) have been described as exogenous elicitors of some plant defense compounds, polyphenols among them. Given that they activate different arrays of biochemical reactions to induce resistance, the objective of this study was to determine whether the joint application of BTH and MeJ to grape clusters affects the level of the main flavonoid compounds in grapes and in the resulting wines. The results are compared with those obtained when abscisic acid (ABA), a plant growth regulator involved in several physiological processes, was sprayed in the same vineyard. The results obtained indicated that, although the application of ABA increased the content of skin anthocyanins and tannins, these positive effects were not reflected in the wines made from these grapes. BTH+MeJ-treated grapes also presented higher anthocyanin and flavonol contents, and in this case, their wines presented better chromatic characteristics that the wine made from control grapes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Gomez-Plaza E.,University of Murcia | Mestre-Ortuno L.,University of Murcia | Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Fernandez-Fernandez J.I.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Lopez-Roca J.M.,University of Murcia
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2012

Benzothiadiazole and methyl jasmonate have been described as exogenous elicitors of some plant defence compounds. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of benzothiadiazole and methyl jasmonate to Vitis vinifera L. Monastrell grape clusters at the beginning of the ripening process affects the synthesis of volatile compounds in grapes (as has been observed in other fruits) and whether this effect has a technological significance in the resulting wines. Results indicated that both treatments increased the levels of volatile compounds in grapes, especially terpenes and norisoprenoids in benzothiadiazole-treated grapes. The wines obtained from the treated grapes also showed higher levels of terpene and norisoprenoids. Wines from methyl jasmonate-treated grapes had levels of these volatile compounds almost two times higher than the wines made from control grapes. These differences in the volatile compound levels could be sensorially detected. © 2012 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.


Martinez J.A.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Carbonell M.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a highly important crop in Murcia's agriculture. In this Spanish region, the main variety grown is the 'Blanca de Tudela' destined for both the fresh market and industry. Although globe artichoke is a pluriannual plant, virus impact or vegetative degeneration, which affect to de growing vigour and lack of production and quality, makes it advisable to renew the vegetative material yearly or every two years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the most important characteristics of artichoke hybrids cultivar compared with open pollination artichokes. The commercial cultivars used were: 'Concerto F1', 'Madrigal F1', 'Opal F1', 'Green Globe', 'Imperial Star', 'A-116' and 'Lorca'. We compared seed grown artichokes with the commercial variety of 'Blanca de Tudela', the most traditional and widely spread cultivar in ESP, which is vegetatively propagated. The vegetative growth parameters which were studied and quantified were yield, quality, production continuity during the assay and its capacity to keep characteristics through an annual or biannual cultivation cycle (most common in this area). The trials were carried out at an Experimental farm located in Fortuna- Abanilla (38°11' N, 1°04' W, Murcia, ESP). Planting took place on late July. The plantation frame was 1.2 m between plants and 1.5 m between lines. Drip irrigation and fertirrigation were used. No phyto-hormones which can affect the vegetative growth or bring forward the harvest date were applied. From the obtained results we can conclude that the vigour, early or lately production of head weight are significantly different between 'Blanca de Tudela' and the seeds propagated cultivars. © ISHS.


Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Romero-Cascales I.,University of Murcia | Bautista-Ortin A.B.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2013

The application of different elicitors to plants has proved a useful technique for the improvement of their phenolic content. However, studies have shown that the exact response of plants to elicitors depends both on variety and clone. In the present study, two elicitors (benzothiadiazole and methyl jasmonate) were applied in a vineyard where a collection of the six selected clones of Monastrell grape variety were planted to determine whether any observed effect was clone-dependent. The analysis of anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and seed and skin tannins showed that, in general, both elicitors increased the levels of phenolic compounds in the treated plants, although the extent of the response differed among different clones from the same variety. The positive effect of both benzothiadiazole and methyl jasmonate indicated that such treatments could be regarded as useful for improving grape and wine color while also increasing resistance to some pathogens. However, a preliminary exploratory field study should be carried out since differences in the response of the grapes to treatment might occur, depending on the clone. © 2013 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.


Ruiz-Garcia Y.,University of Murcia | Romero-Cascales I.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | Fernandez-Fernandez J.I.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Benzothiadiazole (BTH) and methyl jasmonate (MeJ) have been described as exogenous elicitors of some plant defense compounds, polyphenols among them. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of BTH or MeJ to grape clusters at the beginning of the ripening process had any effect on the accumulation of the main flavonoid compounds in grapes (anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavanols) and the technological significance of these treatments in the resulting wines. The results obtained after a 2 year experiment indicated that both treatments increased the anthocyanin, flavonol, and proanthocyanidin content of grapes. The wines obtained from the treated grapes showed higher color intensity and total phenolic content than the wines made from control grapes. The exogenous application of these elicitors, as a complement to fungicide treatments, could be an interesting strategy for vine protection, increasing, at the same time, the phenolic content of the grapes and the resulting wines. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Busse-Valverde N.,University of Murcia | Gomez-Plaza E.,University of Murcia | Lopez-Roca J.M.,University of Murcia | Gil-Munoz R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Proanthocyanidins are important for wine quality since they participate in astringency, bitterness and color. Given the localization of proanthocyanidins in the berry (skin and seeds), different methods have been developed that help to modulate the release of these phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of two low prefermentative temperature techniques (cold soak and must freezing with dry ice) and the use of macerating enzymes has been studied during the vinification of three different varietal wines (Monastrell, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon) to assess their influence on wine proanthocyanidin concentration and composition. Syrah wines showed the lowest proanthocyanidin content, together with the lowest mDP and the highest percentage of galloylation in its proanthocyanidins. Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed similar proanthocyanidin concentration. The application of the low temperature prefermentative maceration (cold soak) was the most effective treatment, increasing the proanthocyanidin concentration in Monastrell and Cabernet Sauvignon wines although neither of the treatments had any effect on Syrah wines. As regards the effect of the different treatments on the proanthocyanidin composition, the results seem to indicate that the observed increases were mainly due to an increase in seed proanthocyanidins, even in the case of cold soak treatments, which occur in the absence of ethanol, suggesting that ethanol is not so crucial in the extraction of seed proanthocyanidins. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | University of Murcia and Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agroalimentario
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

The rate of tannin extraction was studied in a vinification of red grapes and the results compared with another vinification made with white grapes fermented as for typical red wine, in the presence of skins and seeds. Even though the grapes presented a quite similar skin and seed tannin content, the differences in tannin concentration between both vinifications was very large, despite the fact that the only apparent difference between the phenolic composition of both wines was the anthocyanin content. This suggests that anthocyanins play an important role in tannin extractability, perhaps because they affect the extent of the tannin-cell wall interaction, a factor that largely controls the resulting quantity of tannins in wines. To confirm this observation, the effect of anthocyanins on the tannin extractability from grape seeds and skin and on the interaction between tannins and grape cell walls suspended in model solutions were studied. The results indicated that anthocyanins favored skin and seed tannin extraction and that there is a competition for the adsorption sites between anthocyanins and tannins that increases the tannin content when anthocyanins are present.

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