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Llacer G.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Badenes M.L.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Batlle I.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Vargas F.J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Peach is the main stone fruit grown in Spain. The area devoted to this crop has increased slightly over the past 15 years, however its production has doubled in this period. Spain ranks fourth in the world production after China, Italy and the USA, producing 25% of the total peach crop in the European Union. Although peach production increases, consumption in Spain has decreasing as occurs in other western countries. The lack of internal fruit quality is the main reason claimed by consumers for declining to buy fresh peaches. In addition to fruit quality, the main limitations of this crop are: poor adaptability of many cultivars from foreign countries to the Spanish environment, the dependency from cultivars bred in other countries, the incidence of pests, diseases and abiotic stresses and the high cost of the crop management. These problems can be overcome, in part, by developing breeding programs based on controlled crosses. The Spanish peach breeding programs have the following main objectives: - Fruit quality: many cultivars, mainly the early cultivars, have a good external quality but they lack internal quality. - Adaptability to the environment and a better harvest calendar. There is an increase of cultivars with low or very low chilling requirements which allows to grow peaches in warm climates and to advance harvest season more than 30 days. The aims are to breed for early cultivars in Andaluci{dotless acute}a, Murcia, Valencia and Extremadura; late cultivars in Aragón; and to extent the harvest season in Aragón, Cataluña and Extremadura. - Resistance or tolerance to pests and diseases: resistance to aphids and fungal diseases like Sphaerotheca pannosa (powdery mildew), Monillia spp. and Taphrina deformans (leaf curl). - To avoid dependency from the foreign materials, which implies to pay royalties and some times have a worse adaptability. © ISHS 2012. Source

Badenes M.L.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Cambra M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Lopez M.M.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Batlle I.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | And 9 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

European breeding programs are hampered by the low intraspecific genetic diversity, which is due to the self-compatibility of this homozygous species along with the low number of genotypes introduced and thus used for breeding. In 2009, four research institutions which carried out peach breeding programs in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia and Murcia, started a new peach germplasm collection worldwide aimed at enlarging the peach genetic diversity available for breeding. The plant material was introduced from germplasm collections located in China, Central Asia, Iran and the USA (National Germplasm Repository of Davis). Sanitary status was assessed by molecular diagnosis of known diseases caused by virus, viroid, bacteria and phytoplasm pathogens. Healthy plant material was grafted and maintained in quarantine conditions. The new germplasm collection was established in two places: Zaragoza as high chilling and Murcia as low chilling requirements. Pomological and molecular data were gathered and a public database constructed. The descriptors used were from the National Center for Genetic Resources from the INIA. Introduced budwood and seeds resulted in more than 250 new genotypes from 15 countries. The molecular analysis of a subset of the collection with 21 SSR markers evenly distributed in the genome resulted in a high number of alleles per SSR (mean A=9.5) and low observed heterozygosity (mean Ho=0.38). Variability was further assessed by geographic origin. Population structure analysis revealed the existence of 8 subpopulations explained, in some cases, by the geographic origin of the genotypes. As a result of the project a new database containing 95 accessions and 38 variables is available. © 2015 ISHS. Source

Sanchez G.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Sanchez G.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Martinez J.,Instituto Valenciano Of Investigaciones Agrarias Ivia | Romeu J.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario Imida | And 4 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Background: The improvement of fruit aroma is currently one of the most sought-after objectives in peach breeding programs. To better characterize and assess the genetic potential for increasing aroma quality by breeding, a quantity trait locus (QTL) analysis approach was carried out in an F1 population segregating largely for fruit traits.Results: Linkage maps were constructed using the IPSC peach 9 K Infinium ® II array, rendering dense genetic maps, except in the case of certain chromosomes, probably due to identity-by-descent of those chromosomes in the parental genotypes. The variability in compounds associated with aroma was analyzed by a metabolomic approach based on GC-MS to profile 81 volatiles across the population from two locations. Quality-related traits were also studied to assess possible pleiotropic effects. Correlation-based analysis of the volatile dataset revealed that the peach volatilome is organized into modules formed by compounds from the same biosynthetic origin or which share similar chemical structures. QTL mapping showed clustering of volatile QTL included in the same volatile modules, indicating that some are subjected to joint genetic control. The monoterpene module is controlled by a unique locus at the top of LG4, a locus previously shown to affect the levels of two terpenoid compounds. At the bottom of LG4, a locus controlling several volatiles but also melting/non-melting and maturity-related traits was found, suggesting putative pleiotropic effects. In addition, two novel loci controlling lactones and esters in linkage groups 5 and 6 were discovered.Conclusions: The results presented here give light on the mode of inheritance of the peach volatilome confirming previously loci controlling the aroma of peach but also identifying novel ones. © 2014 Sánchez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Garcia Garcia J.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario Imida | Garcia Brunton J.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario Imida
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The cost accounting of a 1 ha peach orchard has been studied. Three irrigation treatments were considered: i) Control, full irrigation, ii) R75, irrigated at 75% of ETo (reference evapotranspiration) during postharvest, and iii) R50, irrigated at 50% ETo during postharvest. We have compared costs for each treatment and calculated the corresponding rates of economic assessment and water use efficiency. The labour costs are the main peach growing account for about 60 and 63% of current assets. Gross margin/current assets was higher for Control treatment than R75. Both indexes are very close, 23.8 and 20.8%, respectively. In contrast, R50 had a very low rate. The profit margin is higher and similar in Control and R75, with 0.13 and 0.12 € kg-1, respectively. The indicator of economic efficiency is very high and virtually unchanged in the Control treatment (0.55 € m-3) and the R75 (0.53). © ISHS 2012. Source

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