Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib

Murcia, Spain

Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib

Murcia, Spain
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Navarro-Zaragoza J.,University of Murcia | Navarro-Zaragoza J.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Hidalgo J.M.,University of Murcia | Hidalgo J.M.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent evidence suggests that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a major molecular substrate of addictive properties of drugs of abuse. Hence, we performed a series of experiments to further characterize the role of GR signalling in opiate withdrawal-induced physical signs of dependence, enhanced noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation (activation) as well as GR expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The role of GR signalling was assessed by i.p. pretreatment of the selective GR antagonist, mifepristone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later, rats were pretreated with mifepristone or vehicle 30 min before naloxone and physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, GR expression and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. KEY RESULTS Mifepristone alleviated the somatic signs of naloxone-induced opiate withdrawal. Mifepristone attenuated the increase in the NA metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylen glycol (MHPG), in the PVN, and the enhanced NA turnover observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Mifepristone antagonized the TH phosphorylation at Ser31 and the expression of c-Fos expression induced by morphine withdrawal. Finally, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced up-regulation of GR in the NTS. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that the physical signs of opiate withdrawal, TH activation and stimulation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the PVN are modulated by GR signalling. Overall, the present data suggest that drugs targeting the GR may ameliorate stress and aversive effects associated with opiate withdrawal. © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

Laorden M.L.,University of Sfax | Laorden M.L.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Ferenczi S.,Institute of Experimental Medicine | Pinter-Kubler B.,Institute of Experimental Medicine | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Both the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the extrahypothalamic brain stress system are key elements of the neural circuitry that regulates the negative states during abstinence from chronic drug exposure. Orexins have recently been hypothesized to modulate the extended amygdala and to contribute to the negative emotional state associated with dependence. This study examined the impact of chronic morphine and withdrawal on the lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin A (OXA) gene expression and activity as well as OXA involvement in the brain stress response to morphine abstinence. Male Wistar rats received chronic morphine followed by naloxone to precipitate withdrawal. The selective OX1R antagonist SB334867 was used to examine whether orexins' activity is related to somatic symptoms of opiate withdrawal and alterations in HPA axis and extended amygdala in rats dependent on morphine. OXA mRNA was induced in the hypothalamus during morphine withdrawal, which was accompanied by activation of OXA neurons in the LH. Importantly, SB334867 attenuated the somatic symptoms of withdrawal, and reduced morphine withdrawal-induced c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, central amygdala and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, but did not modify the HPA axis activity. These results highlight a critical role of OXA signalling, via OX1R, in activation of brain stress system to morphine withdrawal and suggest that all orexinergic subpopulations in the lateral hypothalamic area contribute in this response. © 2012 Laorden et al.

Martin F.,University of Murcia | Martin F.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Nunez C.,University of Murcia | Nunez C.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Experimental and clinical findings have shown that administration of adrenoceptor antagonists alleviated different aspects of drug withdrawal and dependence. The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in CREB activation and phosphorylated TORC1 levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal as well as the HPA axis activity arises from α 1- and/or β-adrenoceptor activation. The effects of morphine dependence and withdrawal on CREB phosphorylation (pCREB), phosphorylated TORC1 (pTORC1), and HPA axis response were measured by Western-blot, immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay in rats pretreated with prazosin (α 1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (β-adrenoceptor antagonist). In addition, the effects of morphine withdrawal on MHPG (the main NA metabolite at the central nervous system) and NA content and turnover were evaluated by HPLC. We found an increase in MHPG and NA turnover in morphine-withdrawn rats, which were accompanied by increased pCREB immunoreactivity and plasma corticosterone concentrations. Levels of the inactive form of TORC1 (pTORC1) were decreased during withdrawal. Prazosin but not propranolol blocked the rise in pCREB level and the decrease in pTORC1 immunoreactivity. In addition, the HPA axis response to morphine withdrawal was attenuated in prazosin-pretreated rats. Present results suggest that, during acute morphine withdrawal, NA may control the HPA axis activity through CREB activation at the PVN level. We concluded that the combined increase in CREB phosphorylation and decrease in pTORC1 levels might represent, in part, two of the mechanisms of CREB activation at the PVN during morphine withdrawal. © 2012 Martín et al.

Espin R.,University of Murcia | Espin R.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Roca F.J.,University of Murcia | Roca F.J.,University of Washington | And 14 more authors.
DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms | Year: 2013

Although it is known that tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) signaling plays a crucial role in vascular integrity and homeostasis, the contribution of each receptor to these processes and the signaling pathway involved are still largely unknown. Here, we show that targeted gene knockdown of TNFRSF1B in zebrafish embryos results in the induction of a caspase-8, caspase-2 and P53-dependent apoptotic program in endothelial cells that bypasses caspase-3. Furthermore, the simultaneous depletion of TNFRSF1A or the activation of NF-κB rescue endothelial cell apoptosis, indicating that a signaling balance between both TNFRs is required for endothelial cell integrity. In endothelial cells, TNFRSF1A signals apoptosis through caspase-8, whereas TNFRSF1B signals survival via NF-κB. Similarly, TNFa promotes the apoptosis of human endothelial cells through TNFRSF1A and triggers caspase-2 and P53 activation. We have identified an evolutionarily conserved apoptotic pathway involved in vascular homeostasis that provides new therapeutic targets for the control of inflammation- and tumor-driven angiogenesis. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Garcia-Perez D.,University of Murcia | Garcia-Perez D.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Lopez-Bellido R.,University of Salamanca | Rodriguez R.E.,University of Salamanca | And 6 more authors.
Brain Structure and Function | Year: 2015

Dopamine (DA) is thought to represent a teaching signal and has been implicated in the induction of addictive behaviours. Previously, it has been proposed that the transcription factors Nurr1 and Pitx3, which are critical for transcription of a set of genes involved in DA metabolism in the mesolimbic pathway, are associated with addiction pathology. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in the mesolimbic pathway associated with morphine dependence and withdrawal. Using quantitative real-time PCR, immunofluorescence, HPLC and Western blotting, here we studied the effects of single morphine administration, morphine dependence and morphine withdrawal on Nurr1 and Pitx3 expression as well as on the DA marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the turnover of DA in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or nucleus accumbens. We showed that the three experimental conditions caused induction of Nurr1 and Pitx3 in the VTA, which correlated with changes in TH expression during chronic morphine administration. Present data also confirmed the colocalization of Nurr1 and Pitx3 with TH-positive neurons in the posterior VTA. Furthermore, during morphine dependence, Nurr1 was detected in the nucleus compartment of VTA TH-positive neurons, whereas Pitx3 was strongly detected in the nucleus of TH-positive neurons after single morphine administration and during morphine withdrawal. The number of TH neurons, number of Nurr1 or Pitx3-positive cells, and the number of TH neurons expressing Nurr1 or Pitx3 were not modified in the subpopulations of DA neurons. Present data provide novel insight into the potential correlation between Nurr1 and Pitx3 and DA neurons plasticity during opiate addiction in the mesolimbic pathway. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Munoz I.,University of Murcia | Munoz I.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Sepulcre M.P.,University of Murcia | Sepulcre M.P.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | And 4 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2014

TLR22 is a fish-specific TLR that recognizes dsRNAs. In the present study, a TLR22 homologue gene from gilthead seabream (sbTLR22) was identified and characterized. The full coding sequence contained a single open-reading frame of 2895 nucleotides encoding a predicted protein of 964 amino acids in length. Its 3'-UTR was relatively long, 1380 nucleotides, and contained three AU-rich sequences frequently associated with mRNA instability. Functional studies showed that the sbTLR22 transcript had a short half-life, although the three AU-rich sequences in its 3'-UTR did not seem to be related with this fact. The sbTLR22 was highly expressed in the spleen, thymus and gills of healthy fish. After Vibrio anguillarum infection, the mRNA levels of sbTLR22 increased greatly in head kidney, blood and peritoneal exudate, but were only moderately induced in spleen and liver, suggesting the involvement of sbTLR22 in the immune response against bacterial infections. In addition, acidophilic granulocytes and macrophages, both considered professional phagocytes in seabream, displayed cell-type-specific sbTLR22 expression profiles when stimulated with different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although acidophilic granulocytes expressed sbTLR22, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) was unable to up-regulate the expression of this receptor. In contrast, poly I:C induced the expression of sbTLR22 in macrophages, in a process that was partially endosome-dependent. Taken together, our results suggest that sbTLR22 is involved in bacterial infection and might sense bacterial PAMPs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mondejar I.,University of Murcia | Mondejar I.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Aviles M.,University of Murcia | Coy P.,University of Murcia | Coy P.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib
Human Reproduction | Year: 2013

Study Question: Is zona pellucida (ZP) resistance to proteolysis, induced by oviductal fluid (OF), a mechanism common to species other than the pig and cow? Summary Answer: ZP resistance to proteolysis induced by OF was observed in the mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, sheep, goat, pig and cow, but not in humans. What is Known Already: Oviductal ZP resistance to proteolysis occurs in the pig and cow where it influences the incidence of fertilization and polyspermy. The effect is observed after incubation of ZP in OFs from pig (pOF), cow (cOF), rabbit (rOF) and sheep (sOF). Study Design , Size, Duration Oocytes from nine different species, including ungulates, rodents, lagomorphs and primates were incubated in rOF, sOF, gOF, cOF, pOF and human oviductal fluid (hOF). ZP digestion times for the matured oocytes of these nine species, without any treatment or incubated in 5 (mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, cow, ewe and goat) or 6 (pig and humans) of the OFs collected were compared using three replicates per treatment and at least three oocytes per replicate.MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSIn vivo matured oocytes from rat, hamster, mouse, rabbit and humans, in vitro matured oocytes from cow, goat, ewe and pig and rOF, cOF, gOF, sOF, pOF and human (hOF) were collected and processed for the study. Oocytes from each species were incubated in the different OFs for 30 min. The resistance of the ZP of the oocytes to enzymatic digestion in a pronase solution (0.5% in PBS) was measured and registered as ZP digestion time. Main Results and the Role of Chance: rOF increased ZP resistance to proteolytic digestion in the range of between 96 and 720 h for any of the species tested, whereas the corresponding increase in human ZP was only 1 min. OFs from the remaining species also had a significant effect, with variations among the cross-species experiments (P < 0.05). hOF, which was only tested on human and porcine oocytes, had no effect on ZP chemical hardening. Measurements of ZP digestion times are not of extreme accuracy and errors of a few seconds can be assumed in the experimental data. However, when differences are in the range of hours among treatments, variations measured in seconds do not alter the robustness of the findings. Limitations, Reasons For Caution Human oocytes and OF were of limited access, compared with oocytes from species collected in slaughterhouses. OFs from mouse, rat and hamster were not tested due to the small size of the genital tract in these species and the small volume of fluid available. Wider Implications of the Finding: s: Since oviductal modification of ZP resistance to proteolytic digestion has been demonstrated to influence fertilization and this pre-fertilization mechanism is considered to contribute to the control of polyspermy, the apparent absence of this mechanism in humans suggests that the regulation of polyspermy depends mainly on other mechanisms, most probably of cortical granule origin. Investigation into a possible relationship between the lack of oviductal ZP hardening in human oocytes and the existence of tubal ectopic pregnancies in this species is proposed. Study Funding/Competing Interes: T(S)This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and FEDER, Grant AGL2009-12512-C02-01-02. The authors declare no competing interest. © 2013 The Author.

Navarro-Zaragoza J.,University of Murcia | Navarro-Zaragoza J.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Laorden M.L.,University of Murcia | Laorden M.L.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | And 2 more authors.
Toxicology | Year: 2014

Pharmacological evidence has accumulated showing that glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) facilitate several responses to different drugs of abuse. Recent findings have attributed a prominent role to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in modulating behavior during the addictive process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MR blockade on: brain stress system responses to naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal, the somatic signs of abstinence; the effects of morphine withdrawal on noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), c-Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylated at Ser31 levels in the nucleus tractus solitarius noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A2); and finally, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. The role of MR signaling was assessed with i.p. pretreatment with the MR antagonist, spironolactone. Rats were implanted with two morphine (or placebo) pellets. Six days later rats were pretreated with spironolactone or vehicle 30min before naloxone. The physical signs of abstinence, NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression and the HPA axis activity were measured using HPLC, immunoblotting and RIA. Spironolactone attenuated the somatic signs of withdrawal that were seen after naloxone administration to chronic morphine treated animals. On the other hand, pretreatment with spironolactone resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover, TH activation, c-Fos expression or HPA axis activity that occurred during morphine withdrawal. These results suggest that somatic signs of opiate withdrawal are modulated by MR signaling. However, blockade of MR did not significantly alter the brain stress system response to morphine withdrawal. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Garcia-Perez D.,University of Murcia | Garcia-Perez D.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Luisa Laorden M.,University of Murcia | Luisa Laorden M.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2014

Opiates cause persistent restructuring in the mesolimbic reward system. Although a possible role for midkine and pleiotrophin cytokines in the field of synaptic plasticity has been proposed, it has not been assessed whether morphine administration regulates astrogliosis and midkine and pleiotrophin transcription. We observed that single morphine injection and chronic morphine increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Interestingly, single morphine injection and chronic morphine increased VTA midkine and pleiotrophin mRNA expression. Given these results, we hypothesize a role for these cytokines in mediating, at least in part, acute neuroprotective effects and chronic neurotrophic adaptations that contribute to drug dependence. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Anchelin M.,University of Murcia | Anchelin M.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | Alcaraz-Perez F.,University of Murcia | Alcaraz-Perez F.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Biosanitaria Imib | And 8 more authors.
DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms | Year: 2013

The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio) as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases. We found that telomerase-deficient zebrafish show p53-dependent premature aging and reduced lifespan in the first generation, as occurs in humans but not in mice, probably reflecting the similar telomere length in fish and humans. Among these aging symptoms, spinal curvature, liver and retina degeneration, and infertility were the most remarkable. Although the second-generation embryos died in early developmental stages, restoration of telomerase activity rescued telomere length and survival, indicating that telomerase dosage is crucial. Importantly, this model also reproduces the disease anticipation observed in humans with dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Thus, telomerase haploinsufficiency leads to anticipation phenomenon in longevity, which is related to telomere shortening and, specifically, with the proportion of short telomeres. Furthermore, p53 was induced by telomere attrition, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, genetic inhibition of p53 rescued the adverse effects of telomere loss, indicating that the molecular mechanisms induced by telomere shortening are conserved from fish to mammals. The partial rescue of telomere length and longevity by restoration of telomerase activity, together with the feasibility of the zebrafish for high-throughput chemical screening, both point to the usefulness of this model for the discovery of new drugs able to reactivate telomerase in individuals with DC.

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