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Sales Luiz Vianna F.,Inagemp Instituto Nacional Of Genetica Medica Populacional | Sales Luiz Vianna F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | de Oliveira M.Z.,Inagemp Instituto Nacional Of Genetica Medica Populacional | de Oliveira M.Z.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 6 more authors.
Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2015

Introduction: Thalidomide causes congenital defects in children, such as limb reduction defects. Currently, it is used for a few indications; in Brazil, where leprosy is endemic, thalidomide is used for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, and recent cases of thalidomide embryopathy have been reported. Methods: We analyzed the frequency of births with phenotypes consistent with thalidomide embryopathy (TEP) and correlated this with the distribution of thalidomide and the prevalence of leprosy between 2005 and 2010 in Brazil. Results: A total of 5,889,210 thalidomide tablets were distributed; the prevalence of limb reduction defects was 1.60 (CI95%: 1.54-1.66) and TEP was 0.11 (CI95%: 0.10-0.13) per 10,000 births. Poisson regression showed an increase in cases of TEP and limb reduction defects per 100,000 tablets dispensed. Clusters and geographical isolates were identified in several regions. Conclusions: There is a correlation between thalidomide and TEP showing that thalidomide embryopathy should be monitored in countries where this medication is available. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Martinez-Cortes G.,University of Guadalajara | Salazar-Flores J.,University of Guadalajara | Haro-Guerrero J.,University of Guadalajara | Rubi-Castellanos R.,University of Guadalajara | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2013

The maternal ancestry (mtDNA) has important applications in different research fields, such as evolution, epidemiology, identification, and human population history. This is particularly interesting in Mestizos, which constitute the main population in Mexico (∼93%) resulting from post-Columbian admixture between Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves, principally. Consequently, we conducted minisequencing analysis (SNaPshot) of 11 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 742 Mestizos of 10 populations from different regions in Mexico. The predominant maternal ancestry was Native American (92.9%), including Haplogroups A, B, C, and D (47, 23.7, 15.9, and 6.2%, respectively). Conversely, European and African ancestries were less frequent (5.3 and 1.9%, respectively). The main characteristics of the maternal lineages observed in Mexican-Mestizos comprised the following: 1) contrasting geographic gradient of Haplogroups A and C; 2) increase of European lineages toward the Northwest; 3) low or absent, but homogeneous, African ancestry throughout the Mexican territory; 4) maternal lineages in Mestizos roughly represent the genetic makeup of the surrounding Amerindian groups, particularly toward the Southeast, but not in the North and West; 5) continuity over time of the geographic distribution of Amerindian lineages in Mayas; and 6) low but significant maternal population structure (FST = 2.8%; P = 0.0000). The average ancestry obtained from uniparental systems (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) in Mexican-Mestizos was correlated with previous ancestry estimates based on autosomal systems (genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats). Finally, the comparison of paternal and maternal lineages provided additional information concerning the gender bias admixture, mating patterns, and population structure in Mestizos throughout the Mexican territory. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lopez-Camelo J.S.,Instituto Multidisciplinario Of Biologia Celular | Montalvo G.,Hospital Carlos Andrade Marin | Castilla E.E.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Camacho A.,Hospital San Vicente de Paul | And 3 more authors.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke among pregnant women in Ecuador Objectives. To determine the frequency of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure among pregnant women in Ecuador and to describe the sociodemographic profiles associated with these perinatal risk factors. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a survey of women 18-46 years of age who were more than three months pregnant and attended follow-up consultations in seven maternity clinics in six cities in Ecuador between October 2004 and September 2005. Demographics and environmental exposure (independent variables) data and their relationship to cigarette smoking and secondhand-smoke exposure were analyzed. Results. Of the 746 women studied, 53.3% had smoked occasionally, and 4.3%, regularly; of these, 75% had quit smoking before or during pregnancy. Of the respondents, 12.9% were frequently or always exposed to secondhand smoke indoors. Having more education (11 or more years), being in the middle or upper socioeconomic classes, being Caucasian, and it being considered acceptable for women in the community to smoke were significantly and directly associated with cigarette smoking (P < 0.001). Overall, 12.9% of women were being exposed to secondhand smoke and this was significantly associated with being single and cohabiting with smokers or employees connected to the tobacco industry (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Specific measures must be designed and implemented to not only encourage smoking cessation during pregnancy, but also to prevent women of reproductive age from taking up smoking and to limit smoking in the home environment.

Mira A.,Instituto Multidisciplinario Of Biologia Celular | Gili J.A.,CONICET | Lopez-Larraza D.M.,Instituto Multidisciplinario Of Biologia Celular | Lopez-Larraza D.M.,CONICET
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology | Year: 2013

Nonprotein thiols are considered radioprotectors, preventing DNA damage by ionizing radiation. Because bleomycin (BLM) is a radiomimetic agent, it was proposed that thiols may prevent DNA damage produced by this antibiotic. However, results obtained with treatments combining thiols and BLM in living cells are contradictory. The goal of this study was to analyze the DNA damage induced by BLM and the influence of 3 nonprotein thiols of different electrical charges and chemical compositions at the level of single cells (comet assay). We also studied the morphological signs of apoptosis produced by BLM in these same conditions. We found that all thiols potentiated DNA damage induced by BLM, most probably by reactivating the BLM complex once it generated free radicals. Cysteamine (positive) potentiated BLM action the most, glutathione (negative) potentiated this antibiotic the least, whereas cysteine had an intermediate effect compared with the other two. © 2013 Begell House, Inc.

Yang N.N.,University College London | Mazieres S.,University Paul Sabatier | Bravi C.,Instituto Multidisciplinario Of Biologia Celular | Ray N.,University of Geneva | And 23 more authors.
Annals of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

We report an integrated analysis of nuclear (autosomal, X- and Y-chromosome) short tandem repeat (STR) data and mtDNA D-loop sequences obtained in the same set of 22 Native populations from across the Americas. A north to south gradient of decreasing population diversity was observed, in agreement with a settlement of the Americas from the extreme northwest of the continent. This correlation is stronger with "least cost distances," which consider the coasts as facilitators of migration. Continent-wide estimates of population structure are highest for the Y-chromosome and lowest for the autosomes, consistent with the effective size of the different marker systems examined. Population differentiation is highest in East South America and lowest in Meso America and the Andean region. Regional analyses suggest a deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium consistent with population expansion in Meso America and the Andes and population contraction in Northwest and East South America. These data hint at an early divergence of Andean and non-Andean South Americans and at a contrasting demographic history for populations from these regions. © 2010 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

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