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Hansen A.M.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2012

To examine and compare historical accumulation of metal(loid)s in Mexican lakes and reservoirs, 210Pb and 137Cs dated sediment cores were evaluated: two from the remote Zempoala and Miramar Lagoons and three from Lake Pátzcuaro, and the Intermedia and Silva dams that are affected by human activities. Sediment ecotoxicology was assessed using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. The+100a sediment core from the remote Miramar Lagoon had the highest concentrations of Cr and Ni these being higher than the Probable Effect Levels (PELs). Zinc concentrations were also higher in the Miramar Lagoon compared to the other lakes and reservoirs, with concentrations higher than the Threshold Effect Level (TEL). Mercury concentrations from this lagoon were comparable to those for the Intermedia dam that receives water from urban, industrial and agricultural areas. The higher metal concentrations in the core from the Miramar Lagoon suggest that metal concentrations in the rocks of the watershed are high. Another explanation for the higher metal concentrations is the slow sediment accumulation that causes metals to be accumulated over longer time-periods at the sediment-water interface. A decrease in the concentration of As in the Intermedia dam was observed in sediments corresponding to the last decades. This may be due to an increase in sediment accumulation rate or to the reduction in sources of this metalloid in the watershed. In the Miramar Lagoon, an increase was observed in concentrations of As and Cr in more recent sediments, probably related to increased deforestation in the area or the eruption of El Chichonal volcano in 1982. Concentrations of Pb showed a decreasing tendency over the past decades in the Lake Pátzcuaro, Miramar and Zempoala Lagoons sediment cores while such behavior was not be observed for the Intermedia dam. This reduction in concentrations of Pb was attributed to the decrease in use of leaded gasoline. © 2012. Source

Rodriguez-Canche L.G.,Autonomous University of Campeche | Cardoso Vigueros L.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Maldonado-Montiel T.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez-Sanmiguel M.,Soluciones Productivas Ambientales S.A. de C.V.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

This study evaluated the potential of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to remove pathogens from the sludge from septic tanks. Three earthworm population densities, equivalent to 1, 2, and 2.5 kg m-2, were tested for pathogen removal from sludge. The experimental phase lasted 60 days, starting from the initial earthworm inoculation. After 60 days, it was found that earthworms reduced concentrations of fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and helminth ova to permissible levels (<1000 MPN/g, <3 MPN/g, and <1 viable ova/g on a dry weight basis, respectively) in accordance with Official Mexican Standard of environmental protection (NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002) (SEMARNAT, 2002). Thus, sludge treatment with earthworms generated Class A biosolids, useful for forest, agricultural, and soil improvement. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Solar activity (SA) oscillations over the past millennia are analyzed and extrapolated based on reconstructed solar-related records. Here, simple recurrent models of SA signal are applied and tested. The consequent results strongly suggest the following: (a) the existence of multi-millennial (∼ 9500-year) scale solar patterns linked with planetary gravitational forcing (PGF), and (b) their persistence, over at least the last glacial-interglacial cycle, but possibly since the Miocene (10.5 Myr ago). This empirical modeling of solar recurrent patterns has also provided a consequent multi-millennial-scale experimental forecast, suggesting a solar decreasing trend toward grand (super) minimum conditions for the upcoming period, AD-2050-2250 (AD-3750-4450). Taking into account the importance of these estimated SA scenarios, a comparison is made with other SA forecasts. In Appendixes A and B, we provide further verification, testing and analysis of solar recurrent patterns since geological eras, and their potential gravitational forcing. © 2016 Author(s). Source

Aviles J.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Eduardo Perez-Rocha L.,Electric Research Institute of Mexico
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the applicability of global ductility in the conventional design procedure of structure-foundation systems under earthquake excitation. For a bilinear elastoplastic model, an equivalent ductility factor for the combined structure and foundation is derived, which can be used in conjunction with the enlarged period and increased damping due to soil-structure interaction (SSI) to determine the design strength. A geometric transformation rule for predicting the ductility demand developed in the structure alone from that experienced by the interacting system is also derived, without the need of computing the rigid-body motion of the foundation. To validate this practical approach for assessing both inelastic strengths as well as ductility demands, a number of numerical results for different system parameters and earthquake excitations are provided. The effects of principal parameters involved are also examined. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Aviles J.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Perez-Rocha L.E.,Electric Research Institute of Mexico
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2010

Changes expected in Mexico City's seismic response due to land subsidence caused by groundwater extraction are examined. Settlements of the land surface observed in the recent past are compiled and processed to predict regional subsidence in the near future. This information is used in combination with the iso-depth and iso-period maps stipulated by the building code to estimate the compaction of surface sediments and the shortening of soil periods. The time-progressive evolution of the official seismic zoning maps and the associated site-specific response spectra is predicted. The same is done with spectral response contours expressed in terms of the site and structure periods. The subsidence effects are considered through an impact factor, which represents the increase or decrease in the spectral ordinates with respect to the current values specified for design purposes. The detrimental or beneficial effects depend on the relative values of the structure and site periods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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