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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: WATER-1a-2014 | Award Amount: 3.46M | Year: 2015

iMETland project aims to construct and validate a full-scale application of a eco-friendly device to treat urban wastewater from small communities at zero-energy operation cost. Our concept comes from the integration of Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (MET) with the biofilters used in constructed wetlands. iMETland outperforms classical biofilters from constructed wetlands by using electroactive bacteria in combination with a innovative electroconductive material to achive depuration rates that are 10-fold higher than classical techniques. On top of that, the low biomass yield generated under electrogenic conditions avoids any bed colmatation. Wastewater will be also converted into pathogen-free water suitable for irrigation by using an electro-oxidative methodology. Furthermore, the unique conversion of sewage treatment into electric current by electricity-producing bacteria makes such a process an internal reporter of the biological depuration process. So thus, it can be used as output signal to control the process and can easily inform the operator through ICT tools, converting the depuration in an interactive process between device and a smart-phone in end-users hands. iMETland try to fill the gap that was sharply identified by the programme topic: WATER-1-2014/2015: Bridging the gap: from innovative water solutions to market replication. Our solution has already passed both research and pilot scale and is ready to try a full-scale demonstration to accelerate the market uptake. The multidisciplinary nature of iMETland makes it to fit well with the water and wastewater treatment priority of the EIP-water. Moreover, the coordinator of iMETland consortium is also the Technical Manager of a recent ACTION GROUP at EIP-WATER called MEET-ME4WATER, Meeting Microbial Electrochemistry for Water. This AG focuses on overcoming the barriers to scaling up and demonstrate microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) and bring them faster to the market.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2007. | Award Amount: 945.98K | Year: 2009

VIVACE is based on two conceptual pillars: on the one side innovative technical concepts for vital and viable services, and on the other, integrated analytical approaches and decision support tools. These two pillars are based on the emerging concepts for natural resource management emphasising reuse and recycling. They will be centred on peri-urban water management, but will include organic solid waste management, and agricultural water management. The restricted biosphere where VIVACE will test their tools is represented by rapidly developing urban or small town areas in Latin America, together with their rural/natural surroundings. The systems boundaries will be set on a case specific basis in such a way that the mutual impacts of water extraction and wastewater/waste disposal can be assessed. In each case study, VIVACE will analyse the impact of existing resource management practices (within the considered sectors) on the economic development in the region. This will allow the evaluation of the potential of proposed innovative concepts for safeguarding and or fostering economic development in a restricted biosphere. Integrated analytical approaches for decision support and strategic planning will then be developed and tested, with particular focus on tools for integrated and participatory assessment of these aspects. In this perspective, the two primary objectives of VIVACE will be: 1. To explore the existing potential and constraints of integrated resource planning, thereby contributing to the implementation of the Framework Programmes and the preparation of future Community research and technological development policy. 2. To interact with a wide range of societal actors (SMEs, civil society organisations and their networks, small research teams and research centres) in the activities of the thematic areas of the Cooperation programme.

Aviles J.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Eduardo Perez-Rocha L.,Electric Research Institute of Mexico
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the applicability of global ductility in the conventional design procedure of structure-foundation systems under earthquake excitation. For a bilinear elastoplastic model, an equivalent ductility factor for the combined structure and foundation is derived, which can be used in conjunction with the enlarged period and increased damping due to soil-structure interaction (SSI) to determine the design strength. A geometric transformation rule for predicting the ductility demand developed in the structure alone from that experienced by the interacting system is also derived, without the need of computing the rigid-body motion of the foundation. To validate this practical approach for assessing both inelastic strengths as well as ductility demands, a number of numerical results for different system parameters and earthquake excitations are provided. The effects of principal parameters involved are also examined. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Aviles J.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Perez-Rocha L.E.,Electric Research Institute of Mexico
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2010

Changes expected in Mexico City's seismic response due to land subsidence caused by groundwater extraction are examined. Settlements of the land surface observed in the recent past are compiled and processed to predict regional subsidence in the near future. This information is used in combination with the iso-depth and iso-period maps stipulated by the building code to estimate the compaction of surface sediments and the shortening of soil periods. The time-progressive evolution of the official seismic zoning maps and the associated site-specific response spectra is predicted. The same is done with spectral response contours expressed in terms of the site and structure periods. The subsidence effects are considered through an impact factor, which represents the increase or decrease in the spectral ordinates with respect to the current values specified for design purposes. The detrimental or beneficial effects depend on the relative values of the structure and site periods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Tamari S.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Mory J.,Ecole Des Mines de Douai | Guerrero-Meza V.,Disime S.A. de C.V.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

It is sometimes difficult to monitor the water level of reservoirs with a sloping bank - such as many lakes and earth-dam embankment - using terrestrial techniques or airborne instruments. A proposed alternative is a new technique using a terrestrial near-infrared Lidar mounted with a large incidence angle (at least between 40° and 70°). This technique assumes that the Lidar can detect the (sub-)surface of a water body provided that it contains enough suspended particles to backscatter the light emitted by the instrument to its detector. Tests performed with a commercial Lidar show that the technique can be used to estimate the water level of a reservoir with moderate accuracy (within ±0.05. m [p= 0.95]) when the water is very turbid (Secchi depth < 0.5 m). The versatility and accuracy of the technique is expected to improve in the future with the use of current Lidar that are more sophisticated than the tested one. © 2011 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

Hernandez-Antonio A.,Autonomous University of Sinaloa | Hansen A.M.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua
Revista Internacional de Contaminacion Ambiental | Year: 2011

This study presents the inventory of pesticides and an assessment of water and sediments pollution in two agricultural areas of Mexico. Triazinic, fenoxychlorinated, and organochlorine pesticides were analyzed, including six persistent organic pollutants (POP). Although the use of atrazine is restricted and prohibited in various parts of the World, this herbicide is still being used in Mexico without restriction and our results show that this herbicide affects water quality in one of the agricultural areas. The concentrations of atrazine and one of its metabolites (desethylatrazine) in water samples exceeded the limit of 2 μg L -1 proposed by the World Health Organization for this herbicide in drinking water (WHO 2008) and the one of the European Community has satted at 0.1 μg L -1 for drinking water (European Parliament 1998). The metabolites of the pesticide DDT (DDD and DDE) exceeded the interim sediment quality guideline (ISQG) for freshwater sediments established by the Canadian Council of Environmental Ministers although concentrations do not exceed the probable effect level (PEL) (CCME 2003). Although the use of DDT in agriculture has been banned in Mexico (DOF 1991), the results show that the metabolites of this pesticide continue to appear in environmental samples due to its long half-life. Surveillance monitoring is proposed for the pesticides found in levels higher than established in limits and criteria.

Mateos E.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Marinone S.G.,CICESE | Lavin M.F.,CICESE
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2013

A numerical study of the coastal circulation off northern Baja California and Southern California is presented. A series of numerical experiments was designed with the objective of understanding the main mechanisms that maintain and control the variability of the California Surface Current (CSC) and the California Undercurrent (CUC) off the northern Baja California coast. The coastal circulation variability in the area reflects the seasonal and mesoscale evolution of the CSC and the CUC. These currents are formed outside the model domain and are included in the open boundary conditions, which were obtained from SODA model (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation). The seasonal evolution of these currents is mainly due to wind forcing. The spring-summer intensification of the CSC is the result of density fronts caused by coastal upwelling. Upwelling produces, in spring, a strong and deep (>50m) density gradient due to an Ekman transport up to 100m3s-1×100m of coastline. The wind stress curl is strong in spring and summer, but it is more effective in strengthening the CUC during summer because during spring its effect on the CUC is inhibited due to a stronger and deeper CSC at this time. The coastal heads, especially Point Loma, enhance positive vertical relative vorticity in the near-coast part of the CSC, causing flow separation. The mesoscale variability of the currents is associated with the presence of cyclonic eddies, which interact with the seasonal currents, migrate west, and merge with each other. The high variability found in the CSC and the CUC, the low values of the baroclinic time scale parameter, and the change of sign of the potential vorticity gradient suggest that both currents are barotropically and baroclinically unstable. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hansen A.M.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2012

To examine and compare historical accumulation of metal(loid)s in Mexican lakes and reservoirs, 210Pb and 137Cs dated sediment cores were evaluated: two from the remote Zempoala and Miramar Lagoons and three from Lake Pátzcuaro, and the Intermedia and Silva dams that are affected by human activities. Sediment ecotoxicology was assessed using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. The+100a sediment core from the remote Miramar Lagoon had the highest concentrations of Cr and Ni these being higher than the Probable Effect Levels (PELs). Zinc concentrations were also higher in the Miramar Lagoon compared to the other lakes and reservoirs, with concentrations higher than the Threshold Effect Level (TEL). Mercury concentrations from this lagoon were comparable to those for the Intermedia dam that receives water from urban, industrial and agricultural areas. The higher metal concentrations in the core from the Miramar Lagoon suggest that metal concentrations in the rocks of the watershed are high. Another explanation for the higher metal concentrations is the slow sediment accumulation that causes metals to be accumulated over longer time-periods at the sediment-water interface. A decrease in the concentration of As in the Intermedia dam was observed in sediments corresponding to the last decades. This may be due to an increase in sediment accumulation rate or to the reduction in sources of this metalloid in the watershed. In the Miramar Lagoon, an increase was observed in concentrations of As and Cr in more recent sediments, probably related to increased deforestation in the area or the eruption of El Chichonal volcano in 1982. Concentrations of Pb showed a decreasing tendency over the past decades in the Lake Pátzcuaro, Miramar and Zempoala Lagoons sediment cores while such behavior was not be observed for the Intermedia dam. This reduction in concentrations of Pb was attributed to the decrease in use of leaded gasoline. © 2012.

Solar activity (SA) oscillations over the past millennia are analyzed and extrapolated based on reconstructed solar-related records. Here, simple recurrent models of SA signal are applied and tested. The consequent results strongly suggest the following: (a) the existence of multi-millennial (∼ 9500-year) scale solar patterns linked with planetary gravitational forcing (PGF), and (b) their persistence, over at least the last glacial-interglacial cycle, but possibly since the Miocene (10.5 Myr ago). This empirical modeling of solar recurrent patterns has also provided a consequent multi-millennial-scale experimental forecast, suggesting a solar decreasing trend toward grand (super) minimum conditions for the upcoming period, AD-2050-2250 (AD-3750-4450). Taking into account the importance of these estimated SA scenarios, a comparison is made with other SA forecasts. In Appendixes A and B, we provide further verification, testing and analysis of solar recurrent patterns since geological eras, and their potential gravitational forcing. © 2016 Author(s).

Hansen A.M.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua | Marquez-Pacheco H.,Instituto Mexicano Of Tecnologia Del Agua
Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geologicas | Year: 2012

On the basis of nutrient lixiviation experiments and variations in redox potential in water bodies, a procedure is proposed to evaluate internal nutrient loads. This procedure was evaluated for a water body of 1800 ha with a maximum depth of 38 m and an average depth between 11 and 22 m, depending on the variations in storage volume. Combined sediment samples from deep, intermediate and shallow areas of the water body were suspended in water with magnetic agitation and supplies of air or N 2 (g) for control of redox potential. The suspensions were monitored, measuring dissolved minerals and nutrients. Carbon dioxide produced by mineralization of organic matter in the sediments was quantified by determining variations in electrical conductivities due to the precipitation of carbonate in alkaline solutions. The lixiviation of nutrients per unit mass of sediments was calculated, considering that this occurs in the upper 0.15 m of sediments with a density of 170 kg/m 3. The nutrient loads per unit area were plotted as a function of redox potential and tendency lines were adjusted. Based on redox potentials for the water body as published in the scientific literature, areas of the water body were calculated that represent specific redox potential intervals. Applying the tendency lines, the internal phosphorous and nitrogen loads were determined, detecting more lixiviation of nitrogen and phosphorus from sediment samples originating from deep and intermediate areas than from the shallower areas of the water body. While nitrogen release and CO 2 production increased with increasing redox potential, lixiviation of phosphorous and iron increased with decreasing redox potential as a result of reductive dissolution of iron-containing minerals and associated phosphorus. Lixiviated phosphorous represented approximately 1% of total phosphorous in the sediments. The results suggest that internal phosphorus load mainly occur from June to October, during stratification of the water body, while the internal load of nitrogen occurs from December to April. Accumulated internal loads of nitrogen and phosphorus were 1,153.5 and 3.7 t/yr, respectively. These results were compared with the nutrient balance for the water body of 13.7 t P/yr which is 370% the estimated internal phosphorus load and 914 t N/yr or 79% of the estimated internal nitrogen load, resulting in an overestimation of the nitrogen load and an underestimation of the phosphorus load by considering changes in redox potential published in the literature. Recommendations were formulated to optimize the proposed procedure.

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