Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas Imibic

Spain

Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas Imibic

Spain
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Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Galiano D.,CIBER ISCIII | Garcia-Galiano D.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas Imibic | Pinilla L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2012

Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, and their canonical receptor, GPR54 (also termed Kiss1R), are unanimously recognised as essential regulators of puberty onset and gonadotrophin secretion. These key reproductive functions stem from the capacity of kisspeptins to stimulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamus, where discrete populations of Kiss1 neurones have been identified. In rodents, two major groups of hypothalamic Kiss1 neurones exist: one present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the other located in the anteroventral periventricular area (AVPV/RP3V). In recent years, numerous signals have been identified as putative modulators of the hypothalamic Kiss1 system. Among them, the prominent role of sex steroids as being important regulators of Kiss1 neurones has been documented in different species and developmental stages, such as early brain sex differentiation, puberty, adulthood and senescence. These regulatory actions are (mainly) conducted via oestrogen receptor (ER)α, which is expressed in almost all Kiss1 neurones, and likely involve both classical and nonclassical pathways. The regulatory effects of sex steroids are nucleus-specific. Thus, sex steroids inhibit the expression of Kiss1/kisspeptin at the ARC, as a mechanism to conduct their negative-feedback actions on gonadotrophin secretion. By contrast, oestrogens enhance Kiss1 expression at the AVPV/RP3V in rodents, suggesting the involvement of this population in the positive-feedback actions of oestradiol to generate the preovulatory surge of gonadotrophins. In addition, sex steroids have been shown to act post-transcriptionally, modulating GnRH/gonadotrophin responsiveness to kisspeptin. Finally, sex steroids also regulate the expression of co-transmitters of Kiss1 neurones, such as neurokinin B, whose mRNA content in the ARC fluctuates in parallel to that of Kiss1 in response to changes in the circulating levels of sex steroids, therefore suggesting the contribution of this neuropeptide in the feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion. In sum, compelling experimental evidence obtained in different mammalian (and non-mammalian) species, including primates, demonstrates that sex steroids are essential regulators of hypothalamic Kiss1 neurones, which in turn operate as conduits for their effects on GnRH neurones. The physiological relevance of such regulatory phenomena is thoroughly discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Roa J.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Roa J.,University of Otago | Tena-Sempere M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Tena-Sempere M.,CIBER ISCIII | Tena-Sempere M.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas Imibic
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

The onset of puberty is gated by body energy reserves and nutritional cues. The adipose hormone leptin is an essential signal for the metabolic control of puberty, through mechanisms that are yet to be fully characterized. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an energetic cell sensor, operates at specific hypothalamic nuclei as a transducer for leptin effects on feeding and energy homeostasis. This review summarizes recent experimental evidence supporting a role for central mTOR signaling in puberty onset. These findings are discussed in the context of topical developments in the field, such as recognition of the roles of the cAMP responsive element-binding protein regulated transcription coactivator-1 (Crtc1) and kisspeptins in the metabolic control of reproduction, thus highlighting novel mechanisms responsible for coupling puberty and energy homeostasis. © Elsevier Ltd.


Castellano J.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Castellano J.M.,CIBER ISCIII | Bentsen A.H.,Copenhagen University | Mikkelsen J.D.,Copenhagen University | And 3 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010

Body energy reserves and metabolic state are relevant modifiers of puberty onset and fertility; forms of metabolic stress ranging from persistent energy insufficiency to morbid obesity are frequently linked to reproductive disorders. The mechanisms for such a close connection between energy balance and reproduction have been the subject of considerable attention; however, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is still incomplete. In mid 1990s, the adipose-hormone, leptin, was proven as an essential signal for transmitting metabolic information onto the centers governing puberty and reproduction; yet, the ultimate mode of action of leptin on GnRH neurons has remained contentious for years. More recently, kisspeptins, a family of neuropeptides encoded by the Kiss1 gene, have emerged as conduits for the metabolic regulation of reproduction and putative effectors of leptin actions on GnRH neurons. This review recapitulates the experimental evidence obtained to date, mostly in laboratory rodents, supporting the function of kisspeptins in bridging energy balance and reproduction, with special emphasis on recent developments in this field, such as the recognition of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and Crtc1 (Creb1-regulated transcription coactivator-1) as putative mediators for leptin regulation of Kiss1 expression, as well as the identification of other potential metabolic modulators of kisspeptin signaling, such as ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Galiano D.,CIBER ISCIII | Navarro V.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Navarro V.M.,University of Washington | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Nesfatin-1 was originally identified as a hypothalamic neuropeptide, derived from the precursor NEFA (for DNA binding/EF-hand/acidic protein)/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), with the ability to suppress food intake, acting in a leptin-independent manner. Departing from this seminal finding, the patterns of expression of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 have been thoroughly characterized in different hypothalamic nuclei and brain areas with proven roles in energy homeostasis, and its potential interactions with other key neuropeptide regulators of appetite have been documented. Intriguingly, recent experimental evidence suggests that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is also expressed in peripheral tissues with relevant metabolic functions, such as the pancreas, the adipose, and the gut. In addition, evidence is mounting that nesfatin signaling may participate in adaptative responses and in the control of body functions gated by the state of energy reserves, such as puberty onset. Altogether, these observations have broadened our perception of the biological profile of nesfatin-1 that, rather than a simple anorectic signal in the hypothalamus, might operate at different tissues as an integral regulator of energy homeostasis and closely related neuroendocrine functions. © 2010 Society for Endocrinology.


Gaytan F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Gaytan F.,CIBER ISCIII | Gaytan F.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas Imibic | Sangiao-Alvarellos S.,University of La Coruña | And 24 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Lin28 (also termed Lin28a) and Lin28b are related RNA-binding proteins, involved in the control of microRNA synthesis, especially of the let-7 family, with putative functions in early (embryo) development. However, their roles during postnatal maturation remain ill defined. Despite the general assumption that Lin28 and Lin28b share similar targets and functions, conclusive demonstration of such redundancy is still missing. In addition, recent observations suggest a role of Lin28 proteins in mammalian reproduction, which is yet to be defined.Wedocument herein the patterns of RNA expression and protein distribution of Lin28 and Lin28b in mouse testis during postnatal development and in a model of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a result of inactivation of the kisspeptin receptor, Gpr54. Lin28 and Lin28b mRNAs were expressed in mouse testis across postnatal maturation, but their levels disparately varied between neonatal and pubertal periods, with peak Lin28 levels in infantile testes and sustained elevation of Lin28b mRNA in young adult male gonads, where relative levels of let-7a and let-7b miRNAs were significantly suppressed. In addition, Lin28 peptides displayed totally different patterns of cellular distribution in mouse testis: Lin28 was located in undifferentiated and type-A1 spermatogonia, whereas Lin28b was confined to spermatids and interstitial Leydig cells. These profiles were perturbed in Gpr54 null mouse testis, which showed preserved but irregular Lin28 signal and absence of Lin28b peptide, which was rescued by administration of gonadotropins, mainly hCG (as super-agonist of LH). In addition, increased relative levels of Lin28, but not Lin28b,mRNAand of let-7a/let-7b miRNAs were observed in Gpr54 KO mouse testes. Altogether, our data are the first to document the divergent patterns of cellular distribution and mRNA expression of Lin28 and Lin28b in the mouse testis along postnatal maturation and their alteration in a model of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our findings suggest distinct functional roles of these two related, but not overlapping, miRNAbinding proteins in the male gonad. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.


Varela L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Varela L.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Sanchez N.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martinez-Sanchez N.,CIBER ISCIII | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Hyperthyroidism is characterized in rats by increased energy expenditure and marked hyperphagia. Alterations of thermogenesis linked to hyperthyroidism are associated with dysregulation of hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism; however, the central mechanisms mediating hyperthyroidism-induced hyperphagia remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that hyperthyroid rats exhibit marked up-regulation of the hypothalamic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway associated with increased mRNA levels of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased mRNA levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), an area where mTOR co-localizes with thyroid hormone receptor-α (TRα). Central administration of thyroid hormone (T3) or genetic activation of thyroid hormone signalling in the ARC recapitulated hyperthyroidism effects on feeding and the mTOR pathway. In turn, central inhibition of mTOR signalling with rapamycin in hyperthyroid rats reversed hyperphagia and normalized the expression of ARC-derived neuropeptides, resulting in substantial body weight loss. The data indicate that in the hyperthyroid state, increased feeding is associated with thyroid hormone-induced up-regulation of mTOR signalling. Furthermore, our findings that different neuronal modulations influence food intake and energy expenditure in hyperthyroidism pave the way for a more rational design of specific and selective therapeutic compounds aimed at reversing the metabolic consequences of this disease. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Martins L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martins L.,CIBER ISCIII | Fernandez-Mallo D.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Fernandez-Mallo D.,CIBER ISCIII | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Current evidence suggests that ghrelin, a stomach derived peptide, exerts its orexigenic action through specific modulation of Sirtuin1 (SIRT1)/p53 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways, which ultimately increase the expression of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). However, there is a paucity of data about the possible action of ghrelin on alternative metabolic pathways at this level. Here, we demonstrate that ghrelin elicits a marked upregulation of the hypothalamic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Of note, central inhibition of mTOR signaling with rapamycin decreased ghrelin's orexigenic action and normalized the mRNA expression of AgRP and NPY, as well as their key downstream transcription factors, namely cAMP response-element binding protein (pCREB) and forkhead box O1 (FoxO1, total and phosphorylated). Taken together, these data indicate that, in addition to previous reported mechanisms, ghrelin also promotes feeding through modulation of hypothalamic mTOR pathway. © 2012 Martins et al.


Martinez de Morentin P.B.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martinez de Morentin P.B.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Sanchez N.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martinez-Sanchez N.,CIBER ISCIII | And 11 more authors.
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Optimal cellular function and therefore organism's survival is determined by the sensitive and accurate convergence of energy and nutrient abundance to cell growth and division. Among other factors, this integration is coupled by the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway, which is able to sense nutrient, energy and oxygen availability and also growth factor signaling. Indeed, TOR signaling regulates cell energy homeostasis by coordinating anabolic and catabolic processes for survival. TOR, named mTOR in mammals, is a conserved serine/threonine kinase that exists in two different complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Recently, studies are suggesting that alterations of those complexes promote disease and disrupted phenotypes, such as aging, obesity and related disorders and even cancer. The evidences linking mTOR to energy and metabolic homeostasis included the following. At central level mTOR regulates food intake and body weight being involved in the mechanism by which signals such as leptin and ghrelin exert its effects. At peripheral level it influences adipogenesis and lipogenesis in different tissues including the liver. Noteworthy chronic nutritional activation of mTOR signaling has been implicated in the development of beta cell mass expansion and on insulin resistance. Understanding of mTOR and other molecular switches, such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as their interrelationship is crucial to know how organisms maintain optimal homeostasis. This review summarizes the role of hypothalamic TOR complex in cellular energy sensing, evidenced in the last years, focusing on the metabolic pathways where it is involved and the importance of this metabolic sensor in cellular and whole body energy management. Understanding the exact role of hypothalamic mTOR may provide new cues for therapeutic intervention in diseases. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

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