Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas

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Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas

Spain
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Pinilla L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Pinilla L.,CIBER ISCIII | Pinilla L.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas | Pinilla L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 21 more authors.
Physiological Reviews | Year: 2012

Procreation is essential for survival of species. Not surprisingly, complex neuronal networks have evolved to mediate the diverse internal and external environmental inputs that regulate reproduction in vertebrates. Ultimately, these regulatory factors impinge, directly or indirectly, on a final common pathway, the neurons producing the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates pituitary gonadotropin secretion and thereby gonadal function. Compelling evidence, accumulated in the last few years, has revealed that kisspeptins, a family of neuropeptides encoded by the Kiss1 gene and produced mainly by neuronal clusters at discrete hypothalamic nuclei, are pivotal upstream regulators of GnRH neurons. As such, kisspeptins have emerged as important gatekeepers of key aspects of reproductive maturation and function, from sexual differentiation of the brain and puberty onset to adult regulation of gonado-tropin secretion and the metabolic control of fertility. This review aims to provide a comprehensive account of the state-of-the-art in the field of kisspeptin physiology by covering in-depth the consensus knowledge on the major molecular features, biological effects, and mechanisms of action of kisspeptins in mammals and, to a lesser extent, in nonmammalian vertebrates. This review will also address unsolved and contentious issues to set the scene for future research challenges in the area. By doing so, we aim to endow the reader with a critical and updated view of the physiological roles and potential translational relevance of kisspeptins in the integral control of reproductive function.


Pineda R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Pineda R.,CIBER ISCIII | Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Sanchez-Garrido M.A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 13 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Identification of RF-amide-related peptides (RFRP), as putative mammalian orthologs of the avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, has drawn considerable interest on its potential effects and mechanisms of action in the control of gonadotropin secretion in higher vertebrates. Yet, these analyses have so far relied mostly on indirect approaches, while direct assessment of their physiological roles has been hampered by the lack of suitable antagonists. RF9 was recently reported as a selective and potent antagonist of the receptors for RFRP (RFRPR) and the related neuropeptides, neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and neuropeptide AF (NPFF receptor). We show here that RF9 possesses very strong gonadotropin-releasing activities in vivo. Central administration of RF9 evoked a dosedependent increase of LH and FSH levels in adult male and female rats. Similarly, male and female mice responded to intracerebroventricular injection of RF9 with robust LH secretory bursts. In rats, administration of RF9 further augmented the gonadotropin-releasing effects of kisspeptin, and its stimulatory effects were detected despite the prevailing suppression of gonadotropin secretion by testosterone or estradiol. In fact, blockade of estrogen receptor-β partially attenuated gonadotropin responses to RF9. Finally, systemic administration of RF9 modestly stimulated LH secretion in vivo, although no direct effects in terms of gonadotropin secretion were detected at the pituitary in vitro. Altogether, these data are the first to disclose the potent gonadotropin-releasing activity of RF9, a selective antagonist of RFRP (and NPFF) receptors. Our findings support a putative role of the RFRP/gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone system in the central control of gonadotropin secretion in mammals and have interesting implications concerning the potential therapeutic indications and pharmacological effects of RF9. © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.


Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Galiano D.,CIBER ISCIII | Garcia-Galiano D.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas | Pineda R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 27 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Nesfatin-1, product of the precursor NEFA/nucleobindin2 (NUCB2), was initially identified as anorectic hypothalamic neuropeptide, acting in a leptin-independent manner. In addition to its central role in the control of energy homeostasis, evidence has mounted recently that nesfatin-1 is also produced in peripheral metabolic tissues, such as pancreas, adipose, and gut. Moreover, nesfatin-1 has been shown to participate in the control of body functions gated by whole-body energy homeostasis, including puberty onset. Yet, whether, as is the case for other metabolic neuropeptides, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 participates in the direct control of gonadal function remains unexplored. We document here for the first time the expression of NUCB2 mRNA in rat, mouse, and human testes, where NUCB2/nesfatin-1 protein was identified in interstitial mature Leydig cells. Yet in rats, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 became expressed in Sertoli cells upon Leydig cell elimination and was also detected in Leydig cell progenitors. Although NUCB2 mRNA levels did not overtly change in rat testis during pubertal maturation and after short-term fasting, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 content significantly increased along the puberty-to-adult transition and was markedly suppressed after fasting. In addition, testicular NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expression was up-regulated by pituitary LH, because hypophysectomy decreased, whereas human choriogonadotropin (super-agonist of LH receptors) replacement enhanced, NUCB2/nesfatin-1 mRNA and peptide levels. Finally, nesfatin-1 increased human choriogonadotropin-stimulated testosterone secretion by rat testicular explants ex vivo. Our data are the first to disclose the presence and functional role of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the testis, where its expression is regulated by developmental, metabolic, and hormonal cues as well as by Leydig cell-derived factors. Our observations expand the reproductive dimension of nesfatin-1, which may operate directly at the testicular level to link energy homeostasis, puberty onset, and gonadal function. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.


Ruiz-Pino F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Ruiz-Pino F.,CIBER ISCIII | Ruiz-Pino F.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas | Navarro V.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 17 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Neurokinin B (NKB), encoded by Tac2 in rodents, and its receptor, NK3R, have recently emerged as important regulators of reproduction; NKB has been proposed to stimulate kisspeptin output onto GnRH neurons. Accordingly, NKB has been shown to induce gonadotropin release in several species; yet, null or even inhibitory effects of NKB have been also reported. The basis for these discrepant findings, as well as other key aspects of NKB function, remains unknown. We report here that in the rat, LH responses to the NK3R agonist, senktide, display a salient sexual dimorphism, with persistent stimulation in females, regardless of the stage of postnatal development, and lack of LH responses in males from puberty onward. Such dimorphism was independent of the predominant sex steroid after puberty, because testosterone administration to adult females failed to prevent LH responses to senktide, and LH responsiveness was not restored in adult males treated with estradiol or the nonaromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone. Yet, removal of sex steroids by gonadectomy switched senktide effects to inhibitory, both in adult male and female rats. Sexual dimorphism was also evident in the numbers of NKB-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which were higher in adult female rats. This is likely the result of differences in sex steroid milieu during early periods of brain differentiation, because neonatal exposures to high doses of estrogen decreased ARC NKB neurons at later developmental stages. Likewise, neonatal estrogenization resulted in lower serum LH levels that were normalized by senktide administration. Finally, we document that the ability of estrogen to inhibit hypothalamic Tac2 expression seems region specific, because estrogen administration decreased Tac2 levels in the ARC but increased them in the lateral hypothalamus. Altogether, our data provide a deeper insight into relevant aspects of NKB function as major regulator of the gonadotropic axis in the rat, including maturational changes, sexual dimorphism, and differential regulation by sex steroids. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.


Tena-Sempere M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Tena-Sempere M.,CIBER ISCIII | Tena-Sempere M.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas
Annales d'Endocrinologie | Year: 2010

In this presentation, we have provided a succinct state-of-the-art of our knowledge on kisspeptins, the newly identified neuropeptide system with key roles in the control of the gonadotropic axis, in the metabolic regulation of puberty onset and fertility. The experimental evidence revised herein, gathered mostly in rodent models, supports the contention that hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons do operate as a central conduit for conveying metabolic information onto the centers governing reproductive function, through a putative leptin-kisspeptin-GnRH pathway, which is likely to involve Crtc1 and/or mTOR as molecular mediators. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Alvarez-Crespo M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alvarez-Crespo M.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Sanchez N.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martinez-Sanchez N.,CIBER ISCIII | And 14 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Fifteen years ago orexins were identified as central regulators of energy homeostasis. Since then, that concept has evolved considerably and orexins are currently considered, besides orexigenic neuropeptides, key modulators of sleep-wake cycle and neuroendocrine function. Little is known, however, about the effect of the neuroendocrine milieu on orexins' effects on energy balance. We therefore investigated whether hypothalamic-pituitary axes have a role in the central orexigenic action of orexin A (OX-A) by centrally injecting hypophysectomized, adrenalectomized, gonadectomized (male and female), hypothyroid, and GH-deficient dwarf rats with OX-A. Our data showed that the orexigenic effect of OX-A is fully maintained in adrenalectomized and gonadectomized (females and males) rats, slightly reduced in hypothyroid rats, and totally abolished in hypophysectomized and dwarf rats when compared with their respective vehicle-treated controls. Of note, loss of the OX-A effect on feeding was associated with a blunted OX-A-induced increase in the expression of either neuropeptide Y or its putative regulator, the transcription factor cAMP response-element binding protein, as well as its phosphorylated form, in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of hypophysectomized and dwarf rats. Overall, this evidence suggests that the orexigenic action of OX-A depends on an intact GH axis and that this neuroendocrine feedback loop may be of interest in the understanding of orexins action on energy balance and GH deficiency. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.


Castellano J.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Castellano J.M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Bentsen A.H.,Copenhagen University | Romero M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 14 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function, was suggested as potential target for transmitting immune-mediated repression of the gonadotropic axis during acute inflammation, and yet key facets of such a phenomenon remain ill defined. Using lipopolysaccharide S (LPS)-treated male rats as model of inflammation, we document herein the pattern of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity (IR) and hormonal responses to kisspeptin during the acute inflammatory phase. LPS injections induced a dramatic but transient drop of serum LH and testosterone levels. Suppression of gonadotropic function was associated with a significant decrease in kisspeptin-IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center for the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Our results also suggest that suppressed gonadotropic function following inflammatory challenges might involve a reduction in absolute responsiveness to kisspeptin that is independent of the anorectic effects of inflammation. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.


Pineda R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Pineda R.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Galiano D.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | And 15 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

RF-amide related peptides (RFRP), as putative mammalian orthologs of the avian gonado-tropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), have been proposed as key regulators of gonadotropin secretion in higher vertebrates. Yet considerable debate has arisen recently on their physiological relevance and potential mechanisms and sites of action. Present studies were undertaken to further characterize the effects of RFRP on LH and FSH secretion by a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches in male and female rats. Initial screening via intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of different analogs of RFRP1 (RFRP1-12 and RFRP1-20) and RFRP3 (RFRP3-8 and RFRP3-17), as well as the related neuropeptide FF (NPFF8), to gonadectomized (GNX) female rats evidenced significant, albeit modest, inhibitory effects on LH secretion only for RFRP3-8 and RFRP3-17, which were detectable at the high dose rage (1 nmol for RFRP3-8, 5 nmol for RFRP3-17). This moderate inhibitory action was also documented after icv administration of RFRP3-8 to intact and GNX male rats. In addition, systemic (intravenous) administration of RFRP3-8 decreased the circulating levels of both gonadotropins in GNX male rats. Likewise, RFRP3-8 inhibited basal and GnRH-stimulated LH secretion by pituitaries from GNX males in vitro. This inhibitory effect was blocked by the antagonist of RFRP receptors, RF9. In summary, our results support a putative inhibitory role of RFRP3 as ortholog of GnIH in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion in mammals, which appears to involve direct pituitary actions as well as potential central (hypothalamic) effects. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.


Roa J.,University of Otago | Roa J.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Roa J.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas | Herbison A.E.,University of Otago
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons act to sense and coordinate the brain's responses to metabolic cues. One neuronal network that is very sensitive to metabolic status is that controlling fertility. In this study, we investigated the impact of neuropeptides released by NPY and POMC neurons on the cellular excitability of GnRH neurons, the final output cells of the brain controlling fertility. The majority (∼70%) of GnRH neurons were activated by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and this resulted from the direct postsynaptic activation of melanocortin receptor 3andmelanocortin receptor 4. A small population of GnRH neurons (∼15%) was excited by cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript or inhibited by β-endorphin. Ag-outi- related peptide, released by NPY neurons, was found to have variable inhibitory (∼10%) and stimulatory (∼25%) effects upon subpopulations of GnRH neurons. A variety of NPY and pancreatic polypeptide analogs was used to examine potential NPY interactions with GnRH neurons. Although porcine NPY (Y1/Y2/Y5 agonist) directly inhibited the firing of approximately 45% of GnRH neurons, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY (Y1/Y4/Y5 agonist) could excite (56%) or inhibit (19%). Experiments with further agonists indicated that Y1 receptors were responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity, whereas postsynaptic Y4 receptors were stimulatory. These results show that the activity of GnRH neurons is regulated in a complex manner by neuropeptides released by POMC and NPY neurons. This provides a direct route through which different metabolic cues can regulate fertility. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.


Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Galiano D.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Navarro V.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Navarro V.M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The hypothalamic peptide, nesfatin-1, derived from the precursor NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was recently identified as anorexigenic signal, acting in a leptin-independent manner. Yet its participation in the regulation of other biological functions gated by body energy status remains unexplored. We show herein that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is involved in the control of female puberty. NUCB2/nesfatin mRNA and protein were detected at the hypothalamus of pubertal female rats, with prominent signals at lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular (PVN), and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Hypothalamic NUCB2 expression raised along pubertal transition, with detectable elevations of its mRNA levels at LHA, PVN, and SON, and threefold increase of its total protein content between late-infantile and peripubertal periods. Conditions of negative energy balance, such as 48 h fasting or sustained subnutrition, decreased hypothalamic NUCB2 mRNA and/or protein levels in pubertal females. At this age, central administration of nesfatin-1 induced modest but significant elevations of circulating gonadotropins, whose magnitude was notably augmented in conditions of food deprivation. Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (as-MONs) against NUCB2 along pubertal maturation, which markedly reduced hypothalamic NUCB2 protein content, delayed vaginal opening and decreased ovarian weights and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. In contrast, in adult female rats, intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin did not stimulate LH or follicle-stimulating hormone secretion; neither did central as-MON infusion alter preovulatory gonadotropin surges, despite suppression of hypothalamic NUCB2. In sum, our data are the first to disclose the indispensable role of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the central networks driving puberty onset, a function that may contribute to its functional coupling to energy homeostasis. Copyright©2010 the authors.

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