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Tena-Sempere M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Tena-Sempere M.,CIBER ISCIII | Tena-Sempere M.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas
Annales d'Endocrinologie | Year: 2010

In this presentation, we have provided a succinct state-of-the-art of our knowledge on kisspeptins, the newly identified neuropeptide system with key roles in the control of the gonadotropic axis, in the metabolic regulation of puberty onset and fertility. The experimental evidence revised herein, gathered mostly in rodent models, supports the contention that hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons do operate as a central conduit for conveying metabolic information onto the centers governing reproductive function, through a putative leptin-kisspeptin-GnRH pathway, which is likely to involve Crtc1 and/or mTOR as molecular mediators. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Roa J.,University of Otago | Roa J.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Roa J.,Instituto Maimonides Of Investigaciones Biomedicas | Herbison A.E.,University of Otago
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons act to sense and coordinate the brain's responses to metabolic cues. One neuronal network that is very sensitive to metabolic status is that controlling fertility. In this study, we investigated the impact of neuropeptides released by NPY and POMC neurons on the cellular excitability of GnRH neurons, the final output cells of the brain controlling fertility. The majority (∼70%) of GnRH neurons were activated by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and this resulted from the direct postsynaptic activation of melanocortin receptor 3andmelanocortin receptor 4. A small population of GnRH neurons (∼15%) was excited by cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript or inhibited by β-endorphin. Ag-outi- related peptide, released by NPY neurons, was found to have variable inhibitory (∼10%) and stimulatory (∼25%) effects upon subpopulations of GnRH neurons. A variety of NPY and pancreatic polypeptide analogs was used to examine potential NPY interactions with GnRH neurons. Although porcine NPY (Y1/Y2/Y5 agonist) directly inhibited the firing of approximately 45% of GnRH neurons, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY (Y1/Y4/Y5 agonist) could excite (56%) or inhibit (19%). Experiments with further agonists indicated that Y1 receptors were responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity, whereas postsynaptic Y4 receptors were stimulatory. These results show that the activity of GnRH neurons is regulated in a complex manner by neuropeptides released by POMC and NPY neurons. This provides a direct route through which different metabolic cues can regulate fertility. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society. Source

Castellano J.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Castellano J.M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Bentsen A.H.,Copenhagen University | Romero M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 14 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function, was suggested as potential target for transmitting immune-mediated repression of the gonadotropic axis during acute inflammation, and yet key facets of such a phenomenon remain ill defined. Using lipopolysaccharide S (LPS)-treated male rats as model of inflammation, we document herein the pattern of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity (IR) and hormonal responses to kisspeptin during the acute inflammatory phase. LPS injections induced a dramatic but transient drop of serum LH and testosterone levels. Suppression of gonadotropic function was associated with a significant decrease in kisspeptin-IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center for the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Our results also suggest that suppressed gonadotropic function following inflammatory challenges might involve a reduction in absolute responsiveness to kisspeptin that is independent of the anorectic effects of inflammation. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society. Source

Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Garcia-Galiano D.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | Navarro V.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Navarro V.M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Fisiopatologia Of La Obesidad tricion | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The hypothalamic peptide, nesfatin-1, derived from the precursor NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was recently identified as anorexigenic signal, acting in a leptin-independent manner. Yet its participation in the regulation of other biological functions gated by body energy status remains unexplored. We show herein that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is involved in the control of female puberty. NUCB2/nesfatin mRNA and protein were detected at the hypothalamus of pubertal female rats, with prominent signals at lateral hypothalamus (LHA), paraventricular (PVN), and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Hypothalamic NUCB2 expression raised along pubertal transition, with detectable elevations of its mRNA levels at LHA, PVN, and SON, and threefold increase of its total protein content between late-infantile and peripubertal periods. Conditions of negative energy balance, such as 48 h fasting or sustained subnutrition, decreased hypothalamic NUCB2 mRNA and/or protein levels in pubertal females. At this age, central administration of nesfatin-1 induced modest but significant elevations of circulating gonadotropins, whose magnitude was notably augmented in conditions of food deprivation. Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (as-MONs) against NUCB2 along pubertal maturation, which markedly reduced hypothalamic NUCB2 protein content, delayed vaginal opening and decreased ovarian weights and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. In contrast, in adult female rats, intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin did not stimulate LH or follicle-stimulating hormone secretion; neither did central as-MON infusion alter preovulatory gonadotropin surges, despite suppression of hypothalamic NUCB2. In sum, our data are the first to disclose the indispensable role of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the central networks driving puberty onset, a function that may contribute to its functional coupling to energy homeostasis. Copyright©2010 the authors. Source

Pineda R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Pineda R.,CIBER ISCIII | Garcia-Galiano D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Sanchez-Garrido M.A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 13 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Identification of RF-amide-related peptides (RFRP), as putative mammalian orthologs of the avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, has drawn considerable interest on its potential effects and mechanisms of action in the control of gonadotropin secretion in higher vertebrates. Yet, these analyses have so far relied mostly on indirect approaches, while direct assessment of their physiological roles has been hampered by the lack of suitable antagonists. RF9 was recently reported as a selective and potent antagonist of the receptors for RFRP (RFRPR) and the related neuropeptides, neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and neuropeptide AF (NPFF receptor). We show here that RF9 possesses very strong gonadotropin-releasing activities in vivo. Central administration of RF9 evoked a dosedependent increase of LH and FSH levels in adult male and female rats. Similarly, male and female mice responded to intracerebroventricular injection of RF9 with robust LH secretory bursts. In rats, administration of RF9 further augmented the gonadotropin-releasing effects of kisspeptin, and its stimulatory effects were detected despite the prevailing suppression of gonadotropin secretion by testosterone or estradiol. In fact, blockade of estrogen receptor-β partially attenuated gonadotropin responses to RF9. Finally, systemic administration of RF9 modestly stimulated LH secretion in vivo, although no direct effects in terms of gonadotropin secretion were detected at the pituitary in vitro. Altogether, these data are the first to disclose the potent gonadotropin-releasing activity of RF9, a selective antagonist of RFRP (and NPFF) receptors. Our findings support a putative role of the RFRP/gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone system in the central control of gonadotropin secretion in mammals and have interesting implications concerning the potential therapeutic indications and pharmacological effects of RF9. © 2010 by The Endocrine Society. Source

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