Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra

Alcalá de Henares, Spain

Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra

Alcalá de Henares, Spain
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Hernandez Plaza E.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Navarrete L.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Gonzalez-Andujar J.L.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
Journal of Vegetation Science | Year: 2012

Question: What is the role of exogenous and endogenous factors in determining fluctuations in plant populations? Methods: A total of 29 long-term time series from different plant species was analysed. Data were obtained from the literature as well as from our own surveys. For each series we calculated the autocorrelation function to identify the presence of cyclic dynamics. The existence and the order of density-dependent processes were examined by calculating the partial rate correlation function to obtain the global Lyapunov exponent to assess whether populations exhibited chaotic dynamics. To test the effect of exogenous factors on each population, we used regression analyses to relate mean annual temperature and total annual precipitation to population abundance. Finally, we employed a Mann-Whitney U-test to analyse whether populations that showed endogenous regulation occurred in less variable environments. © 2012 International Association for Vegetation Science.


Molina M.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Pardo-De-Santayana M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Aceituno L.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Morales R.,CSIC - Institute of Refrigeration | Tardio J.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra
Forestry | Year: 2011

Recent studies have emphasized the nutritional interest of the fruits of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.), a species traditionally gathered in the Mediterranean region. Since fruit production in this species has been scarcely studied, we aimed to assess its local fruit supply in terms of fruit mass and fruit abundance. We carried out a 2-year study in two representative sites from continental and temperate regions of Central and Western Spain, respectively. Tree size, tree density and meteorological data were considered. The aged small population at Site 1 yielded 6.42 ± 1.19 kg per tree (46 ± 19 kg ha -1). The young large population from resprouts at Site 2, where forest management practices related to cork extraction have favoured shrubby growth forms, yielded 2.61 ± 0.42 kg per tree (539 ± 60 kg ha -1). Annual differences in fruit production per tree were recorded at Site 1, characterized by a Mediterranean climate with more severe continental traits than those at Site 2. This original data on wild fruit production may contribute to assessing the yield potential of this species for both sustainable use and cultivation purposes. © Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2011. All rights reserved.


Pena-Fernandez A.,University of Alcalá | Lobo-Bedmar M.C.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Gonzalez-Munoz M.J.,University of Alcalá
Environment International | Year: 2014

In recent years there has been an increased interest from the European Union (EU) in the development of large Human Bio-monitoring (HBM) studies across Europe, especially biomonitoring toxic metals. In Spain, most studies using hair as a biomarker have been conducted to determine occupational or industrial exposures, and have involved adult populations. Few studies have involved adolescents and children, despite these groups being sensitive to environmental contamination and pollutants. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the degree of lead exposure in children and adolescents residing in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Lead poisoning is the number one toxicological threat in the environment. So, lead (Pb) was selected as it is a persistent environmental contaminant, is measureable and is also a neurotoxin that can affect brain development. The city of Alcalá de Henares was divided into four zones to determine the influence of residence area on Pb levels. A range of other variables including age and gender were also considered within the study. The study comprised 115 children (6-9. years old) and 96 adolescents (13-16. years old). There was a significant difference between the levels of Pb in the hair of adolescents, for different gender and area of residence (p. < 0.001 and p. < 0.01 respectively). There was no significant difference in the Pb levels in hair of children, for different gender or area of the city. The levels of Pb were significantly (p. < 0.001) elevated in children compared to adolescents (1.48 vs. 0.70. μg/g), and there was a significant difference in Pb levels in male and female adolescent hair (0.53 vs. 0.77. μg/g) (p. < 0.001). The association observed between areas of residence and the Pb level in hair of the adolescent group could be mainly attributed to dietary habits and/or socioeconomic status. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Delgado J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gonzalez-Garrido L.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Martinez T.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra
Plant Biosystems | Year: 2012

Root turnover is a relevant process controlling carbon and nutrient cycles. Furthermore, root biomass could influence the effectiveness of riparian buffer systems with regard to immobilizing and processing soil water pollutants and improving soil quality. However, sampling root biomass presents many technical problems, because there is as yet no well-established method for assessment thereof. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of limited sampling depth on biomass assessment in four riparian buffers and on two different dates (January and June): a poplar forest, two mixed deciduous afforestations of different ages, and a grassy area. Although, for all systems, most root biomass was limited to the first 30 cm, detection of differences in root biomass among vegetation types depended strongly on sampling depth for both sampling dates. Furthermore, although the poplar forest presented one of the most stable root systems in terms of total biomass between the sampling dates, it was one of the most seasonally dynamic in terms of the amount and distribution with depth of root biomass. The results of this study suggest that a minimum sampling depth should be established for each study according to seasonal variation in vertical distribution of root biomass. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Pena-Fernandez A.,University of Alcalá | Lobo-Bedmar M.C.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Gonzalez-Munoz M.J.,University of Alcalá
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

Contamination of urban and industrial soils with trace metals has been recognized as a major concern at local, regional and global levels due to their implication on human health. In this study, concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soil samples collected in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) in order to evaluate the annual and seasonal variation in their levels. The results show that the soils of the industrial area have higher metals concentrations than the urban area. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the two principal sources of trace metal contamination, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the urban soils of Alcalá can be attributed to traffic emissions, while As, Ni and Be primarily originated from industrial discharges. The seasonal variation analysis has revealed that the emission sources in the industrial area remain constant with time. However, in urban areas, both emissions and emission pathways significantly increase over time due to ongoing development. Currently, there is no hypothesis that explains the small seasonal fluctuations of trace metals in soils, since there are many factors affecting this. Owing to the fact that urban environments are becoming the human habitat, it would therefore be advisable to monitor metals and metalloids in urban soils because of the potential risks to human health. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Vargas A.M.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Vargas A.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fajardo C.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Borrego J.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | And 3 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2013

Background and Aims: The identification of the genes involved in traits of interest is one of the main aims of current plant genetic studies. Although berry texture is a quality trait of great importance in table grapes, no quantitative trait loci or related gene has been described for this trait so far. Methods and Results: In this work, the gene VvPel, which codes for a pectate lyase in the grapevine, was selected as a candidate gene for an association study. This gene was sequenced in a core collection of 96 table grape accessions, which was also characterised for several bunch and berry morphological traits, including diverse texture parameters measured by means of a texture meter. The population structure, the nucleotide and haplotype diversity, the protein structure, the existence of selection, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) were evaluated. Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 15 haplotypes were identified in the VvPel sequence, and LD was low enough to provide a high-resolution power. Some of the polymorphisms associated significantly with texture parameters and with bunch size, explaining part of the variation found for those traits. Conclusions: Among the polymorphisms found in the gene VvPel, S1027 and S405/S441 in relation to berry texture, and S48/S1030 in relation to bunch size, are the most promising and would need to be investigated further as putative causal polymorphisms or markers for the respective traits. Significance of the Study: The present work is the first genetic study on berry texture in the grapevine, and constitutes a starting point for a deeper understanding of the genetic basis of the natural variation for berry texture and bunch size. © 2013 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc..


Pena-Fernandez A.,University of Alcalá | Gonzalez-Munoz M.J.,University of Alcalá | Lobo-Bedmar M.C.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra
Environment International | Year: 2014

Rapid development, industrialisation, and urbanisation have resulted in serious contamination of soil by metals and metalloids from anthropogenic sources in many areas of the world, either directly or indirectly. Exponential urban and economic development has resulted in human populations settling in urban areas and as a result being exposed to these pollutants. Depending on the nature of the contaminant, contaminated urban soils can have a deleterious effect on the health of exposed populations and may require decontamination, recovery, remediation and restoration. Therefore, human health risk assessments in urban environments are very important. In the case of Spain, there are few studies regarding risk assessment of trace elements in urban soils, and those that exist have been derived mainly from areas potentially exposed to industrial contamination or in the vicinity of point pollution. The present study analysed Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn soil concentrations in and around the city of Alcalá de Henares (35. km NE of Madrid). Soil samples were collected in public parks and recreation areas within the city and in an industrial area on the periphery of the city. From these results, an assessment of the health risk for the population was performed following the methodology described by the US EPA (1989). In general, it was observed that there could be a potential increased risk of developing cancer over a lifetime from exposure to arsenic (As) through ingestion of the soils studied (oral intake), as well as an increased risk of cancer due to inhalation of chromium (Cr) present in re-suspended soils from the industrial area. Our group has previously reported (Granero and Domingo, 2002; Peña-Fernández et al., 2003) that there was an increased risk of developing cancer following exposure to As in the same soils in a previous study. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the levels of contaminants in these soils, especially As and Cr as these have been found to exceed safe levels for human health. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Garcia-Estringana P.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Garcia-Estringana P.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Alonso-Blazquez N.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Marques M.J.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | And 3 more authors.
Catena | Year: 2013

The revegetation of land that is no longer cultivated helps reduce soil erosion and runoff. Prior studies have determined the effectiveness of shrub-type cover for this purpose in Spain using small plots sustaining the growth of mature shrubs without considering scaling effects or the establishment and colonisation period, in which the risk of soil erosion is high. In addition, these studies have assessed the effects of high magnitude-low frequency simulated rainfall. The aim of the present study was to measure under natural rainfall conditions the effects of three shrub covers (Colutea arborescens, Dorycnium pentaphyllum and Medicago strasseri) on runoff and soil loss. Plots 20.2m×4m were created and runoff discharge and sediment concentrations were measured after each rainfall event for 2.5years (establishment period) and for the following 4years when the shrubs were well-developed. The results of this experiment were compared with those of a previous study, in which the same data were recorded under conditions of simulated high-intensity rainfall in small plots (0.25m2). In the control plot (bare soil), 5 rainfall events were responsible for 85% of the erosion (37.5Mgha-1) and 59% of the runoff (128.8mm) produced. When the shrub covers were mature, runoff and erosion were reduced (by 84-95% and 95-99% respectively) compared to the establishment period. The effects of the shrubs at mitigating soil and water losses were more pronounced following high intensity rainfall events. Compared to smaller plots, the 80.8m2 plots tested here showed similar soil losses under high intensity thunderstorms but runoff losses were much lower, suggesting that some of the runoff reinfiltrates the slope due to shrub distribution effects. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..


Tello J.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra
Journal of applied microbiology | Year: 2012

Analysis of the diversity and distribution of wine yeasts isolated from organically and conventionally grown grapes, and during the subsequent fermentation with or without starter cultures in six different commercial wineries. PCR-RFLP screening of isolates revealed the involvement of ten different species. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, scarcely isolated from grapes, was the dominant species during the latter phases of fermentation, identifying 108 different genotypes by means of SSR analysis. Species and strains' diversity and presence were strongly influenced by the farming system used to grow the grapes and the system of vinification. Organic farming management was more beneficial in terms of diversity and abundance than the conventional one. Induced fermentation generated a great replacement of native yeasts. Although winery-resident yeasts resulted to be predominant in the process, some noncommercial strains originally in the vineyard were found in final stages of the fermentation, confirming that autochthonous strains of S. cerevisiae are capable to conduct the fermentation process up to its end. The study of natural yeast communities from commercial vineyards and wineries is an important step towards the preservation of native genetic resources. Our results have special relevance because it is the first time that the real situation of the yeast ecology of alcoholic fermentation in commercial wineries belonging to the relevant wine-producing Appellation of Origin 'Vinos de Madrid' is shown. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


Gonzini O.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Plaza A.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra | Di Palma L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Lobo M.C.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry | Year: 2010

Electrokinetic remediation (EKR) has been investigated as one of the best technologies in soil remediation but its applications for organic contaminants have been limited due to low solubility of organics in water and their non-ionic nature. The use of biosurfactants may increase the remediation efficiency by increasing the solubility of organics. The purpose of the introduction of complexing substances is to enhance the EKR process forming complexes and/or increasing the electro-osmotic flow. In this study, the removal of gasoil from a soil using electrokinetic method was investigated in the presence of Rhamnolipid at various concentrations. EKR experiments were undertaken on a gasoil contaminated soil (20,000 ppm). Graphite carbon electrodes were used to provide an electrical direct current (ddp 30-60 V). Results showed that increasing the dose of Rhamnolipid, the efficiency of gasoil removal increased up to 86.7%. Moreover, the lower concentration of the gasoil observed in the liquid phase at the higher concentration of the biosurfactant clearly indicated that the Rhamnolipid addition can enhance gasoil biodegradation. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Loading Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra collaborators
Loading Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural Agrario Y Alimentario Imidra collaborators