Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural

Alcalá de Henares, Spain

Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural

Alcalá de Henares, Spain

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Menendez-Baceta G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Aceituno-Mata L.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Tardio J.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Reyes-Garcia V.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Pardo-de-Santayana M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2012

This ethnobotanical study aims to describe the domain of wild edible plants in Gorbeialdea (Biscay, Iberian Peninsula), and to assess the cultural importance of the different species and food categories. Field work was conducted between 2008 and 2010, interviewing 103 informants about the traditional use of wild plants for food. The edible use of 49 species was recorded, 45% of them gathered for their fruits. The most important species coincide with those registered in other regions in the north of the Iberian Peninsula (Prunus spinosa, Rubus ulmifolius, Castanea sativa, Fragaria vesca, Rumex acetosa, Vaccinium myrtillus and Arbutus unedo). However, the importance of some species and uses that had not been previously recorded as edible in the ethnobotanical literature of the Iberian Peninsula, highlights the singularity of the area. The consumption of the leaves of Fagus sylvatica, the seeds of Pinus radiata, and the shoots of Pteridium aquilinum are some examples of specific uses. The eating of the fruits of Quercus robur, and Q. ilex was common until some decades ago and is still remembered by the informants. However, the consumption of those fruits has now a social stigma, and as shown in this paper, it can be overlooked by a methodology only based on open interviews. The most important use-category was 'fruits', following the trend found in other northern regions of the Iberian and Italian Peninsulas. 'Snack vegetables' is also a relevant category, including 35% of the cited species, with a high diversity of chewed plants, mainly as hunger or thirst quenchers. On the contrary, there was a low valorization of condiments and elaborated vegetables. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sacca M.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fajardo C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Costa G.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lobo C.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) is a new option for the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, but the effect of nZVI on soil biota is mostly unknown. In this work, nanotoxicological studies were performed in vitro and in two different standard soils to assess the effect of nZVI on autochthonous soil organisms by integrating classical and molecular analysis. Standardised ecotoxicity testing methods using Caenorhabditis elegans were applied in vitro and in soil experiments and changes in microbial biodiversity and biomarker gene expression were used to assess the responses of the microbial community to nZVI. The classical tests conducted in soil ruled out a toxic impact of nZVI on the soil nematode C. elegans in the test soils. The molecular analysis applied to soil microorganisms, however, revealed significant changes in the expression of the proposed biomarkers of exposure. These changes were related not only to the nZVI treatment but also to the soil characteristics, highlighting the importance of considering the soil matrix on a case by case basis. Furthermore, due to the temporal shift between transcriptional responses and the development of the corresponding phenotype, the molecular approach could anticipate adverse effects on environmental biota. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Moreno-Jimenez E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Esteban E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Carpena-Ruiz R.O.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lobo M.C.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Penalosa J.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

Phytoremediation can be a suitable option to manage derelict mine soils. A pot experiment was carried out under semi-controlled conditions with a mine-impacted soil. A further contamination event was mimicked by applying 5% of pyritic sludge. Four species were planted in pots (. Myrtus communis, . Retama sphaerocarpa, . Rosmarinus officinalis and . Tamarix gallica), and some pots remained unplanted as a control. The substrates were moderately to highly contaminated, mainly with arsenic and zinc. The strong acidification induced by the pyritic sludge was buffered with lime and plants survived in all the pots. Liming provoked an effective immobilisation of metals and arsenic. Plant establishment decreased labile As in the substrate by 50%, mainly . M. communis, although the levels of extractable metals were not affected by the plants. . R. sphaerocarpa and . M. communis increased the levels of C and N in the soil by 23% and 34% respectively, and also enhanced enzymatic activities and microbial respiration to the double in some cases. The low transfer of trace elements to shoots limited the phytoextraction rate. Our results support the use of phytostabilisation in Mediterranean mine soils and show how plants of . R. sphaerocarpa and . M. communis may increase soil health and quality during revegetation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..

Pazos M.,University of Vigo | Plaza A.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Martin M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lobo M.C.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2012

Over the years, electrokinetic treatment has been successfully applied in the remediation of inorganic and organic contaminants. In this technology, an electric field is utilised to promote the movement of contaminants towards the electrode chambers. However, other native compounds that are present in the soil can also be mobilised. Although this effect can have a great influence on soil properties, there has only been limited research evaluating the soil functionality after electrokinetic treatment.In this work, we carried out the electrokinetic treatment of soil spiked with diesel fuel (20,000ppm). The use of citric acid as a processing fluid was evaluated for enhancement of the electro-osmotic flow. In addition, biostimulation was also tested to facilitate the biodegradation. The efficiency of the treatment at two voltages (1Vcm -1 and 2Vcm -1) was determined based on diesel fuel removal and the impact of the technology on physico-chemical and biological parameters. More powerful electric fields generated the best pollutant removal; however, the soil properties were drastically changed. It is suggested that after electrokinetic treatment, some amendments should be performed to return the soil to its initial condition. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Plaza E.H.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Kozak M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Navarrete L.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Gonzalez-Andujar J.L.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2011

This study investigated whether the choice of a tillage system (no-tillage, minimum tillage or traditional tillage) affected weed diversity in a 23 years cereal-leguminous rotation system in Spain. Weed diversity was assessed using common diversity indices: species richness, Shannon's index and Pielouós evenness. Linear mixed-effects models were employed to compare the tillage systems. It was found that after 23 years no large differences between tillage systems have arisen related to weed diversity. Only minimum tillage appeared to support, on average, more species than the two other tillage systems. Richness, Shannon diversity index and evenness varied largely through the years in all tillage systems but this variation was not related to type of crop sown (cereal or leguminous). Our results highlight that conservation tillage practices did not represent any concern for weed diversity conservation in cereal-leguminous rotations in the conditions of central Spain. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Perez-Esteban J.,University of Bío Bío | Escolastico C.,University of Bío Bío | Moliner A.,Technical University of Madrid | Masaguer A.,Technical University of Madrid | Ruiz-Fernandez J.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural
Plant and Soil | Year: 2014

Background and aims: The high metal bioavailability and the poor conditions of mine soils yield a low plant biomass, limiting the application of phytoremediation techniques. A greenhouse experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of organic amendments on metal stabilization and the potential of Brassica juncea L. for phytostabilization in mine soils. Methods: Plants were grown in pots filled with soils collected from two mine sites located in Central Spain mixed with 0, 30 and 60 t ha-1 of pine bark compost and horse- and sheep-manure compost. Plant biomass and metal concentrations in roots and shoots were measured. Metal bioavailability was assessed using a rhizosphere-based method (rhizo), which consists of a mixture of low-molecular-weight organic acids to simulate root exudates. Results: Manure reduced metal concentrations in shoots (10-50 % reduction of Cu and 40-80 % of Zn in comparison with non-amended soils), bioconcentration factor (10-50 % of Cu and 40-80 % of Zn) and metal bioavailability in soil (40-50 % of Cu and 10-30 % of Zn) due to the high pH and the contribution of organic matter. Manure improved soil fertility and was also able to increase plant biomass (5-20 times in shoots and 3-30 times in roots), which resulted in a greater amount of metals removed from soil and accumulated in roots (increase of 2-7 times of Cu and Zn). Plants grown in pine bark treatments and in non-amended soils showed a limited biomass and high metal concentrations in shoots. Conclusions: The addition of manure could be effective for the stabilization of metals and for enhancing the phytostabilization ability of B. juncea in mine soils. In this study, this species resulted to be a potential candidate for phytostabilization in combination with manure, differing from previous results, in which B. juncea had been recognized as a phytoextraction plant. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Perez-Esteban J.,University of Bío Bío | Escolastico C.,University of Bío Bío | Ruiz-Fernandez J.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Masaguer A.,Technical University of Madrid | Moliner A.,Technical University of Madrid
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Pot experiments were performed to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of plants of Atriplex halimus grown in contaminated mine soils and to investigate the effects of organic amendments on the metal bioavailability and uptake of these metals by plants. Soil samples collected from abandoned mine sites north of Madrid (Spain) were mixed with 0, 30 and 60Mgha-1 of two organic amendments, with different pH and nutrients content: pine-bark compost and horse- and sheep-manure compost. The increasing soil organic matter content and pH by the application of manure amendment reduced metal bioavailability in soil stabilising them. The proportion of Cu in the most bioavailable fractions (sum of the water-soluble, exchangeable, acid-soluble and Fe-Mn oxides fractions) decreased with the addition of 60Mgha-1 of manure from 62% to 52% in one of the soils studied and from 50% to 30% in the other. This amendment also reduced Zn proportion in water-soluble and exchangeable fractions from 17% to 13% in one of the soils. Manure decreased metal concentrations in shoots of A. halimus, from 97 to 35mgkg-1 of Cu, from 211 to 98mgkg-1 of Zn and from 1.4 to 0.6mgkg-1 of Cd. In these treatments there was a higher plant growth due to the lower metal toxicity and the improvement of nutrients content in soil. This higher growth resulted in a higher total metal accumulation in plant biomass and therefore in a greater amount of metals removed from soil, so manure could be useful for phytoextraction purposes. This amendment increased metal accumulation in shoots from 37 to 138mgpot-1 of Cu, from 299 to 445mgpot-1 of Zn and from 1.8 to 3.7mgpot-1 of Cd. Pine bark amendment did not significantly alter metal availability and its uptake by plants. Plants of A. halimus managed to reduce total Zn concentration in one of the soils from 146 to 130mgkg-1, but its phytoextraction capacity was insufficient to remediate contaminated soils in the short-to-medium term. However, A. halimus could be, in combination with manure amendment, appropriate for the phytostabilization of metals in mine soils. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lima M.,University of Santiago de Chile | Lima M.,Laboratorio Internacional Of Cambio Global | Navarrete L.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Gonzalez-Andujar J.L.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Gonzalez-Andujar J.L.,Laboratorio Internacional Of Cambio Global
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Pest control is one of the areas in which population dynamic theory has been successfully applied to solve practical problems. However, the links between population dynamic theory and model construction have been less emphasized in the management and control of weed populations. Most management models of weed population dynamics have emphasized the role of the endogenous process, but the role of exogenous variables such as climate have been ignored in the study of weed populations and their management. Here, we use long-term data (22 years) on two annual weed species from a locality in Central Spain to determine the importance of endogenous and exogenous processes (local and large-scale climate factors). Our modeling study determined two different feedback structures and climate effects in the two weed species analyzed. While Descurainia sophia exhibited a second-order feedback and low climate influence, Veronica hederifolia was characterized by a first-order feedback structure and important effects from temperature and rainfall. Our results strongly suggest the importance of theoretical population dynamics in understanding plant population systems. Moreover, the use of this approach, discerning between the effect of exogenous and endogenous factors, can be fundamental to applying weed management practices in agricultural systems and to controlling invasive weedy species. This is a radical change from most approaches currently used to guide weed and invasive weedy species managements. © 2012 Lima et al.

Gonzalez V.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Tello M.L.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2011

This study investigates the diversity of fungal endophytes associated with several varieties of grapevines with differing modes of cultivation in the Madrid region (central Spain). Our goal is to screen for and identify new fungal biocontrol agents against vine diseases, especially those associated with young plants produced in nurseries. A total of 500 fungal strains representing 68 taxa from six locations were isolated and characterised. Differences regarding cultivar and plant part processed were analysed in terms of composition and relative abundance of species. Some of the more frequently isolated strains represented were Acremonium, Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, Nectria, Penicillium, Phoma and Trichoderma species. Botryosphaeria species and Phomopsis viticola were also frequently isolated and may be vine pathogens. Several species of Acremonium, Phoma (P. glomerata) and Chaetomium showed promising antagonistic activity at the laboratory scale. © Kevin D. Hyde 2010.

Garcia-Estringana P.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Alonso-Blazquez N.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural | Alegre J.,Instituto Madrileno Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Rural
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2010

To predict water losses and other hydrological and ecological features of a given vegetation, its water storage capacity and stemflow need to be accurately determined. Vast areas of the Mediterranean region are occupied by shrublands yet there is scarce data available on their rainwater interception capacity. In this study, simulated rainfall tests were conducted in controlled conditions on nine Mediterranean shrubs of varying anatomic and morphological features to determine water storage capacity, stemflow and the funneling ratio. After assessing correlations between these hydrological variables and the biometric characteristics of the shrubs, we compared two methods of determining storage capacity: rainfall simulation and immersion. Mean water storage capacity was 1.02mm (0.35-3.24mm), stemflow was 16% (3.8-26.4%) and the funneling ratio was 104 (30-260). Per unit biomass, mean storage capacity was 0.66mlg -1 and ranged from 0.23mlg -1 for Cistus ladanifer to 2.26mlg -1 for Lavandula latifolia. Despite their small size, shrubs may generate high water losses to the atmosphere when they form dense communities and this can have a significant impact in regions where water is scarce. When considered the whole shrubs in absolute terms (ml per plant), water storage capacity and stemflow were correlated to biomass and the dendrometric characteristics of the shrubs, yet in relative terms (expressed per surface area unit or as %), anatomic features such as pubescence, branch rigidity or leaf insertion angle emerged as determining factors. The use of a simple procedure to assess storage capacity was inefficient. The immersion method underestimated storage capacity to a different extent for each species. Some shrubs returned high stemflow values typical of their adaptation to the semiarid climate. In contrast, other shrubs seem to have structures that promote stemflow yet have developed other drought-adaptation mechanisms. In this report, we discuss the ecological and hydrological significance of stemflow and the funneling ratio. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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