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Richardson K.,Tufts University | Schnitzler G.R.,Molecular Cardiology Research Institute | Lai C.-Q.,Tufts University | Ordovas J.M.,Tufts University | And 2 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2015

Background-Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus represent overlapping diseases where a large portion of the variation attributable to genetics remains unexplained. An important player in their pathogenesis is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) that is involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. We used a functional genomics methodology to interrogate human chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and expression quantitative trait locus data to inform selection of candidate functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) falling in PPARγ motifs. Methods and Results-We derived 27 328 chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing peaks for PPARγ in human adipocytes through meta-analysis of 3 data sets. The PPARγ consensus motif showed greatest enrichment and mapped to 8637 peaks. We identified 146 SNPs in these motifs. This number was significantly less than would be expected by chance, and Inference of Natural Selection from Interspersed Genomically coHerent elemenTs analysis indicated that these motifs are under weak negative selection. A screen of these SNPs against genome-wide association studies for cardiometabolic traits revealed significant enrichment with 16 SNPs. A screen against the MuTHER expression quantitative trait locus data revealed 8 of these were significantly associated with altered gene expression in human adipose, more than would be expected by chance. Several SNPs fall close, or are linked by expression quantitative trait locus to lipid-metabolism loci including CYP26A1. Conclusions-We demonstrated the use of functional genomics to identify SNPs of potential function. Specifically, that SNPs within PPARγ motifs that bind PPARγ in adipocytes are significantly associated with cardiometabolic disease and with the regulation of transcription in adipose. This method may be used to uncover functional SNPs that do not reach significance thresholds in the agnostic approach of genome-wide association studies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Dashti H.S.,Tufts University | Follis J.L.,University of St. Thomas, Texas | Smith C.E.,Tufts University | Tanaka T.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | And 63 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. Objectives: We examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. Design: We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy as well as interactions with CLOCK variants from 9 cohort studies including up to 14,906 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Results: We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P < 0.0001) in the overall sample; however, associations between sleep duration and relative macronutrient intake were evident in age- and sex-stratified analyses only. We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower saturated fatty acid intake in younger (aged 20-64 y) adults (men: 0.11 ± 0.06%, P = 0.03; women: 0.10 ± 0.05%, P = 0.04) and with lower carbohydrate (-0.31 ± 0.12%, P < 0.01), higher total fat (0.18 ± 0.09%, P = 0.05), and higher PUFA (0.05 ± 0.02%, P = 0.02) intakes in older (aged 65-80 y) women. In addition, the following 2 nominally significant interactions were observed: between sleep duration and rs12649507 on PUFA intake and between sleep duration and rs6858749 on protein intake. Conclusions: Our results indicate that longer habitual sleep duration is associated with lower BMI and age- and sex-specific favorable dietary behaviors. Differences in the relative intake of specific macronutrients associated with short sleep duration could, at least in part, explain previously reported associations between short sleep duration and chronic metabolic abnormalities. In addition, the influence of obesity-associated CLOCK variants on the association between sleep duration and macronutrient intake suggests that longer habitual sleep duration could ameliorate the genetic predisposition to obesity via a favorable dietary profile. Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Offspring Study), NCT01331512 [Invecchiare in Chianti (Aging in the Chianti Area) study], NCT00289237 (Inter99), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). © 2015 American Society for Nutrition

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