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Grzybowski A.,Poznan City Hospital | Grzybowski A.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Nita M.,Domestic and Specialized Medicine Center Dilmed Katowice | Virmond M.,Instituto Lauro Of Souza Lima
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2015

Ocular involvement in leprosy is estimated to be 70-75%, about 10-50% of leprosy patients suffer from severe ocular symptoms, and blindness occurs in about 5% of patients. The disease leads to many ophthalmologic symptoms and signs in the range of the eyeball itself, as well as of the bulb adnexa, ie, eyebrows, eyelids with eyelashes, and lacrimal drainage system. Especially dangerous are complications of lagophthalmos and corneal hypoanesthesia, neurotrophic or infectious keratitis, and iridocyclitis and cataract formation, which may lead to significant decrease of visual acuity or even blindness.Multidrug treatment rapidly interrupts transmission of Mycobacterium leprae by infectious patients, but even after being completed, it does not guarantee the withholding of ocular complications. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Cardoso C.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Pereira A.C.,Instituto Lauro Of Souza Lima | De Sales Marques C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Moraes M.O.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Future Microbiology | Year: 2011

The past few years have been very productive concerning the identification of genes associated with leprosy. Candidate gene strategies using both case-control and family-based designs, as well as large-scale approaches such as linkage and gene-expression genomic scans and, more recently, genome-wide association studies, have refined and enriched the list of genes highlighting the most important innate and adaptive immune pathways associated with leprosy susceptibility or resistance. During the early events of host-pathogen interaction identified genes are involved in pattern recognition receptors, and mycobacterial uptake (TLRs, NOD2 and MRC1), which modulate autophagy. Another gene, LTA4H, which regulates the levels of lipoxin A4 and possibly interacts with lipid droplet-related events, also plays a role in the early immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae. Together, the activation of these pathways regulates cellular metabolism upon infection, activating cytokine production through NF-κB and vitamin D-vitamin D receptor pathways, while PARK2 and LRRK2 participate in the regulation of host-cell apoptosis. Concomitantly, genes triggered to form and maintain granulomas (TNF, LTA and IFNG) and genes involved in activating and differentiating T-helper cells (HLA, IL10, as well as the TNF/LTA axis and the IFNG/IL12 axis) bridge immunological regulation towards adaptive immunity. Subtle variations in these genes, mostly single nucleotide polymorphisms, alter the risk of developing the disease or the severity of leprosy. Knowing these genes and their role will ultimately lead to better strategies for leprosy prevention, treatment and early diagnosis. Finally, the same genes associated with leprosy were also associated with autoimmune (Crohn's disease, rheumathoid arthritis, psoriasis) or neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's). Thus, information retrieved using leprosy as a model could be valuable to understanding the pathogenesis of other complex diseases. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd.

Virmond M.,Instituto Lauro Of Souza Lima | Grzybowski A.,Poznan City Hospital | Grzybowski A.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Virmond L.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana
Clinics in Dermatology | Year: 2015

Leprosy continues to afflict residents from a number of countries in Africa, South America, and southeast Asia, despite the marked reduction in the number of cases of leprosy worldwide, after the introduction of the multidrug regimens as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-MDT). With the increasing immigration of individuals from risk areas to Europe and the United States, knowledge of the basic concepts of leprosy would be helpful to clinicians caring for immigrants in nonendemic areas. We present a comprehensive, updated, and critical glossary of the most relevant terms related to leprosy. © 2015.

Barreto J.G.,Federal University of Para | Guimaraes L.S.,Federal University of Para | Frade M.A.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Rosa P.S.,Instituto Lauro Of Souza Lima | Salgado C.G.,Federal University of Para
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2012

Leprosy in children is correlated with community-level factors, including the recent presence of disease and active foci of transmission in the community. We performed clinical and serological examinations of 1,592 randomly selected school children (SC) in a cross-sectional study of eight hyperendemic municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon Region. Sixty-three (4%) SC, with a mean age of 13.3 years (standard deviation = 2.6), were diagnosed with leprosy and 777 (48.8%) were seropositive for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I). Additionally, we evaluated 256 house-hold contacts (HHCs) of the students diagnosed with leprosy; 24 (9.4%) HHC were also diagnosed with leprosy and 107 (41.8%) were seropositive. The seroprevalence of anti-PGL-I was significantly higher amongst girls, students from urban areas and students from public schools (p < 0.0001). Forty-five (71.4%) new cases detected amongst SC were classified as paucibacillary and 59 (93.6%) patients did not demonstrate any degree of physical disability at diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that there is a high rate of undiagnosed leprosy and subclinical infection amongst children in the Amazon Region. The advantages of school surveys in hyperendemic areas include identifying leprosy patients at an early stage when they show no physical disabilities, preventing the spread of the infection in the community and breaking the chain of transmission.

Pontillo A.,University of Sao Paulo | Laurentino W.,Instituto Lauro Of Souza Lima | Crovella S.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Pereira A.C.,Instituto Lauro Of Souza Lima
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes are known to be involved in the multifactorial susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae infection. M. leprae can downregulate IL-1β secretion escaping monocyte digestion. The intracellular receptors NLRPs (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing proteins) sense pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activating caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion in the context of inflammasome. Considering the possible role of inflammasome in the immune response against M. leprae, known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two NLRP genes, NLRP1 and NLRP3, were analyzed in Brazilian leprosy patients.Disease-associated SNPs (5 in NLRP1 and 2 in NLRP3), previously associated to infections and to immunologic disorders, were genotyped in 467 leprosy patients (327 multibacillary, MB; 96 paucibacillary, PB) and in 380 healthy controls (HC) from the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil), and in 183 patients (147. MB; 64. PB) and 186 HC from Mato Grosso (Brazil). Logistic regression analysis was performed considering susceptibility to leprosy di per se (leprosy versus HC) and clinical form (MB versus PB), adjusting for gender and ethnicity.Whereas none of the considered SNPs were statistically associated with leprosy, the NLRP1 combined haplotype rs2137722/G-rs12150220/T-rs2670660/G resulted significantly more frequent in patients than in HC as well as in PB than in MB. While both associations were lost after correction for gender and ethnicity, the NLRP1 combined haplotype rs2137722/G-rs12150220/A-rs2670660/G resulted strongly associated to PB.NLRP1 might be involved in the susceptibility to leprosy with particular emphasis for PB clinical form. Although preliminary, this is the first report linking NLRPs and inflammasome with leprosy: replication studies as well as functional assays are envisaged to deeper investigate the role of NLRP1 in M. leprae infection. Interestingly, NLRP1 SNPs were previously associated to susceptibility to Crohn disease, suggesting that NLRP1 could be a new modifier gene in common between leprosy and Crohn disease. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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