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Moran P.M.,University of Nottingham | O'Tuathaigh C.M.P.,University College Cork | Papaleo F.,Instituto Italiano Of Tecnologia | Waddington J.L.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Progress in Brain Research | Year: 2014

Mutant mice play an increasingly important role in understanding disease processes at multiple levels. In particular, they illuminate the impact of risk genes for disease on such processes. This article reviews recent advances in the application of mutant mice to study the intricacies of dopaminergic (DAergic) function in relation to the putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness, particularly schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drug action. It considers models for understanding the role(s) of risk genes, with a particular focus on DTNBP1 and NRG1, their interactions with environmental factors, and with each other (epistasis). In overview, it considers new schemas for understanding psychotic illness that integrate DAergic pathophysiology with developmental, social, and cognitive processes, and how mutant mouse models can reflect and inform on such schemas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Schutzius T.M.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Schutzius T.M.,ETH Zurich | Bayer I.S.,Instituto Italiano Of Tecnologia | Qin J.,Kimberly-Clark Corporation | And 2 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Low-cost, large-area, superhydrophobic coating treatments are of high value to technological applications requiring efficient liquid repellency. While many applications are envisioned, only few are realizable in practice due to either the high cost or low durability of such treatments. Recently, spray deposition of polymer-particle dispersions has been demonstrated as an excellent means for producing low-cost, large-area, durable, superhydrophobic composite coatings/films; however, such dispersions generally contain harsh or volatile solvents, which are required for solution processing of polymers as well as for dispersing hydrophobic nanoparticles, thus inhibiting scalability due to the increased cost in chemical handling and environmental safety concerns. Moreover, such coatings usually contain fluoropolymers due to their inherent low surface energy, a requirement for superhydrophobicity, but concerns over their biopersistence has provided an impetus for eliminating these chemicals. For spray coating, the former problem can be overcome by replacing organic solvents with water, but this situation seems paradoxical: Producing a highly water-repellent coating from an aqueous dispersion. We report a water-based, nonfluorinated dispersion for the formation of superhydrophobic composite coatings applied by spray on a variety of substrates. We stabilize hydrophobic components (i.e., polymer, nanoparticles) in water, by utilizing chemicals containing acid functional groups (i.e., acrylic acid) that can become ionized in aqueous environments under proper pH control (pH > 7). The functional polymer utilized in this study is a copolymer of ethylene and acrylic acid, while the particle filler is exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (xGnP), which contains functional groups at its periphery. Once spray deposited and dried, the components become insoluble in water, thus promoting liquid repellency. Such coatings can find a wide range of applications due to their benign processing nature as well as the variety of substrates on which they can be deposited. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Radaelli G.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Radaelli G.,Polytechnic of Milan | Gutierrez D.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Sanchez F.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | And 5 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2015

Pt/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 tunnel junctions, at negative voltage bias, for two polarization directions are represented. It is demonstrated that reversing the polarization direction of a ferroelectric barrier in a tunnel junction leads to a change of junction conductance and capacitance, with concomitant variations on the barrier height and effective thickness, both contributing to produce larger electroresistance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Bogart L.K.,University of Liverpool | Pourroy G.,CNRS Institute of Genetics and of Molecular and Cellular Biology | Murphy C.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Puntes V.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | And 6 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2014

Nanoparticles have the potential to contribute to new modalities in molecular imaging and sensing as well as in therapeutic interventions. In this Nano Focus article, we identify some of the current challenges and knowledge gaps that need to be confronted to accelerate the developments of various applications. Using specific examples, we journey from the characterization of these complex hybrid nanomaterials; continue with surface design and (bio)physicochemical properties, their fate in biological media and cells, and their potential for cancer treatment; and finally reflect on the role of animal models to predict their behavior in humans. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Head C.R.,University of Southampton | Kammann E.,University of Southampton | Zanella M.,Instituto Italiano Of Tecnologia | Manna L.,Instituto Italiano Of Tecnologia | And 2 more authors.
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

In this letter we show how a single beam optical trap offers the means for three-dimensional manipulation of semiconductor nanorods in solution. Furthermore rotation of the direction of the electric field provides control over the orientation of the nanorods, which is shown by polarisation analysis of two photon induced fluorescence. Statistics over tens of trapped agglomerates reveal a correlation between the measured degree of polarisation (DLP) and the size of the agglomerate which was determined by the escape frequency and the intensity of the emitted fluorescence. We estimate that we have trapped agglomerates with a volume of close to 10 times the volume of a single nanorod, which exhibited DLPs as high as 52%. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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