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Rakovich A.,Trinity College Dublin | Rakovich A.,Imperial College London | Nabiev I.,Trinity College Dublin | Sukhanova A.,Trinity College Dublin | And 4 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

We report wavelength-dependent enormous enhancement of the nonlinear refractive index of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of semiconductor quantum dots. The effect is strongest in the region just below the absorption edge of both constituents of this hybrid material and in samples that show strong Förster resonance energy transfer. We show that enhancements of up to 4000% can be achieved by controlled engineering of the hybrid structure involving variations of the molar ratio of the constituents. This new hybrid material with exceptional nonlinear properties will have numerous photonic and optoelectronic applications employing its photochromic, energy transfer, and conversion properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Lam V.M.,University of Toronto | Espinoza S.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Gerasimov A.S.,Saint Petersburg State University | Gainetdinov R.R.,Saint Petersburg State University | Salahpour A.,University of Toronto
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Trace-amines (TAs) are endogenous amines that are implicated in several physiological processes including modulation of aminergic neurotransmission. These compounds exert their effect by activating a class of G protein-coupled receptors termed Trace-Amine Associated Receptors (TAARs), where TAAR1 is the only human receptor that has been shown to bind endogenous TAs. Most of the studies have focused on studying the role of TAAR1 on modulation of the dopamine transmission. These studies indicate that TAAR1 is a negative regulator of dopamine transmission making TAAR1 a novel target for neuropsychiatric disorders that arises from dopamine dysfunction such as schizophrenia. This review discusses the unique pharmacology of TAAR1 with the major focus on the physiological role of TAAR1 and its modulation of dopamine transmission. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Jimison L.H.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Tria S.A.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Khodagholy D.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Gurfinkel M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

The integration of an organic electrochemical transistor with human barrier tissue cells provides a novel method for assessing toxicology of compounds in vitro. Minute variations in paracellular ionic flux induced by toxic compounds are measured in real time, with unprecedented temporal resolution and extreme sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Miao S.,Hefei University of Technology | Yang T.,Hefei University of Technology | Hickey S.G.,TU Dresden | Lesnyak V.,TU Dresden | And 4 more authors.
Small | Year: 2013

ZnO@Zn3P2 quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized, with emission from yellow to red. Photoelectrochemical investigations reveal that the current and voltage of the QD-derivatized electrodes show a response upon illumination. A photocurrent of ca. 8 nA cm-2 for a monolayer of ZnO@Zn3P2 QDs deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode is recorded. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Baranov D.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Manna L.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Manna L.,Technical University of Delft | Kanaras A.G.,University of Southampton
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2011

The self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles is a research area of great interest aiming at the fabrication of unique mesostructured materials with intrinsic properties. Although many assembly strategies have been reported over the years, chemically induced self-assembly remains one of the dominant approaches to achieve a high level of nanoparticle organization. In this feature article we will review the latest developments in assembly driven by the active manipulation of nanoparticle surfaces. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Li P.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Lappas A.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Lavieville R.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Zhang Y.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Krahne R.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2012

CdSe-Au networks were synthesized by a colloidal chemistry technique. They entail CdSe nanorods with a diameter of ∼10 nm and a length of ∼40 nm, which are joined together by Au domains (∼5 nm). Individual networks were positioned by AC dielectrophoresis between bow-tie electrodes with a gap of ∼100 nm and their conductivity as well as the photoelectrical properties were investigated. Nanorod networks, with multiple Au domains on the nanorod surface, displayed stable conductivity that was not sensitive to blue laser light illumination. Such nanostructures were transformed by thermal annealing to networks with Au domains only at the nanorod tips. In this system, the overall conductivity was reduced, but a clear photocurrent signal could be detected, manifesting semiconductor behavior. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Bartczak D.,University of Southampton | Nitti S.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Millar T.M.,University of Southampton | Kanaras A.G.,University of Southampton
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

We present the exocytosis profile of two types of peptide-coated nanoparticles, which have similar charge and size but different functionality. While one kind of particles appears to progressively exocytose, the other one has a more complex profile, suggesting that some of the particles are re-uptaken by the cells. Both types of particles retain their colloidal stability after exocytosis. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Fernandes R.,University of Southampton | Smyth N.R.,University of Southampton | Muskens O.L.,University of Southampton | Nitti S.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | And 3 more authors.
Small | Year: 2015

The interactions between skin and colloidal gold nanoparticles of different physicochemical characteristics are investigated. By systematically varying the charge, shape, and functionality of gold nanoparticles, the nanoparticle penetration through the different skin layers is assessed. The penetration is evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively using a variety of complementary techniques. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is used to quantify the total number of particles which penetrate the skin structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and two photon photoluminescence microscopy (TPPL) on skin cross sections provide a direct visualization of nanoparticle migration within the different skin substructures. These studies reveal that gold nanoparticles functionalized with cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) TAT and R7 are found in the skin in larger quantities than polyethylene glycol-functionalized nanoparticles, and are able to enter deep into the skin structure. The systematic studies presented in this work may be of strong interest for developments in transdermal administration of drugs and therapy. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Bartczak D.,University of Southampton | Muskens O.L.,University of Southampton | Nitti S.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Sanchez-Elsner T.,University of Southampton | And 2 more authors.
Small | Year: 2012

The interactions between noncancerous, primary endothelial cells and gold nanoparticles with different morphologies but the same ligand capping are investigated. The endothelial cells are incubated with gold nanospheres, nanorods, hollow gold spheres, and core/shell silica/gold nanocrystals, which are coated with monocarboxy (1-mercaptoundec-11-yl) hexaethylene glycol (OEG). Cell viability studies show that all types of gold particles are noncytotoxic. The number of particles taken up by the cells is estimated using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and are found to differ depending on particle morphology. The above results are discussed with respect to heating efficiency. Using experimental data reported earlier and theoretical model calculations which take into account the physical properties and distribution of particles in the cellular microenvironment, it is found that collective heating effects of several cells loaded with nanoparticles must be included to explain the observed viability of the endothelial cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Kashiri N.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Tsagarakis N.G.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Laffranchi M.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia | Caldwell D.G.,Instituto Italiano Of Technologia
2013 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics: Mechatronics for Human Wellbeing, AIM 2013 | Year: 2013

The incorporation of intrinsic compliance in robotic actuation systems has attracted the attention during recent years due to the considerable benefits which is not possible to achieve with conventional 'stiff' actuation systems. However, despite the numerous compliant robots developed, a systematic method for tuning the passive elasticity of the individual joints is still missing. This tuning is typically performed using experimental trial and error processes and very little information on the criteria and methodologies used is available. This work studies the effects of passive compliance on the key parameters of the robotic systems including natural frequency, damping ratio, Cartesian stiffness and energy storage capacity. Criteria are then defined based on the desired performance of the system; and a method for the selection of the passive stiffness of compliant actuated arms is introduced. The proposed method is evaluated on a four degrees of freedom (DOF) compliant arm and the compliance of its joints is tuned. The sensitiveness of the main dynamic and static parameters of the robot with respect to the stiffness of joints is illustrated to show the effect of the compliance of each individual joint. © 2013 IEEE.

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