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Silva A.C.,Instituto Israelita Of Ensino E Pesquisa Albert Einstein
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Gliomas are a group of heterogeneous primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors arising from the glial cells. Malignant gliomas account for a majority of malignant primary CNS tumors and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant glioma, and despite the recent advances in diagnosis and new treatment options, its prognosis remains dismal. New opportunities for the development of effective therapies for malignant gliomas are urgently needed. Magnetic hyperthermia (MHT), which consists of heat generation in the region of the tumor through the application of magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), has shown positive results in both preclinical and clinical assays. The aim of this review is to assess the relevance of hyperthermia induced by magnetic nanoparticles in the treatment of gliomas and to note the possible variations of the technique and its implication on the effectiveness of the treatment. We performed an electronic search in the literature from January 1990 to October 2010, in various databases, and after application of the inclusion criteria we obtained a total of 15 articles. In vitro studies and studies using animal models showed that MHT was effective in the promotion of tumor cell death and reduction of tumor mass or increase in survival. Two clinical studies showed that MHT could be applied safely and with few side effects. Some studies suggested that mechanisms of cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, and antitumor immune response were triggered by MHT. Based on these data, we could conclude that MHT proved to be efficient in most of the experiments, and that the improvement of the nanocomposites as well as the AMF equipment might contribute toward establishing MHT as a promising tool in the treatment of malignant gliomas. Source


Dos Santos Ferreira A.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancer Inca | Robaina M.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancer Inca | De Rezende L.M.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancer Inca | Severino P.,Instituto Israelita Of Ensino E Pesquisa Albert Einstein | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Hematology | Year: 2014

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma more common in children comprising one third of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The recent discovery in BL pathogenesis highlighted the activation of PI3K pathway in cooperation with Myc in the development of BL. In this study, we demonstrated that PI3K/Akt pathway is a target to histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) in BL cells. The combination of HDACi (sodium butyrate, NaB) and chemotherapy (VP-16) inhibited 51 % of the proliferation and enhanced the blockage of the cell cycle progression at G2/M with a concurrent decrease in the S phase. Microarray profiling showed a synergistic action of NaB/VP-16 combination through the differential regulation of 1,413 genes. Comparing VP-16 treatment with the NaB/VP-16 combination, 318 genes were deregulated: 250 genes were downregulated, and 68 were upregulated when compared with untreated cells. Among these genes, six (CDKN1A, CCND1, FAS, CHEK2, MDM4, and SESN2) belong to the p53-signaling pathway. The activation of this signaling pathway is usually induced by stress signals and ultimately leads to cell cycle arrest. Besides, the inhibition of the cell growth was related to reduced Akt phosphorylation, and decrease of c-Myc protein expression by about 60 % (p≤0.005). Moreover, HDACi enhanced miR-101, miR-143, and miR-145 levels in BL cell line, which were inversely associated with the levels of miR-101, miR-143, and miR-145 found to be extremely downregulated in the sample of BL patients. We highlight the fact that effective combinations of HDACis with other target drugs could improve BL therapy in the future. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source


Marra A.R.,Instituto Israelita Of Ensino E Pesquisa Albert Einstein | Edmond M.B.,Virginia Commonwealth University
Current Infectious Disease Reports | Year: 2012

Hand hygiene (HH) is an important measure in infection prevention to decrease transmission of microbial pathogens; however, HH compliance by health-care workers (HCWs) remains suboptimal. One of the principal recommendations of current guidelines is that waterless, alcohol-based hand rubs are the preferred method for HH in most situations, due to the superior efficacy of these agents in rapidly reducing bacterial counts on hands and their ease of use. Improving HH compliance is a good quality indicator for hospital patient safety programs. Observers can follow HCWs to perform direct HH observations; however, HCWs may be prompted to clean their hands when observers are nearby, which does not represent real-world conditions.Moreover, having observers walk into patient rooms violates patient privacy and is time consuming. HH strategies using indirect metrics for surveillance (e.g., measuring the volume of HH products consumed) and the use of new technologies (e.g., electronic dispenser counters, radiofrequency, alcohol sensors, and video recording) will also be discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


MacIel T.T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | MacIel T.T.,College de France | Kempf H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Kempf H.,College de France | Campos A.H.,Instituto Israelita Of Ensino E Pesquisa Albert Einstein
Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension | Year: 2010

Purpose of review: Normal development and adult physiology of the kidney and vasculature rely heavily on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Here we compile evidence that favors the notion that BMPs are also critically involved in the process of generation and maintenance of renal and vascular diseases. Recent findings: Molecular manipulation of BMP signaling in vivo and in vitro has been instrumental in showing the protective role of BMPs on renal fibrosis and diabetic nephropathy. Similarly, activation of those pathways produces phenotypic changes in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, tightly linked to the pathogenesis of vascular calcification, hypertrophy and atherosclerosis. Summary: Gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments targeting BMP pathway agonists and inhibitors lead to significant progress in the comprehension of renal and vascular normal and altered behavior. The demonstration that BMP signaling plays an important part in pathological conditions of the vasculature and the kidney opens up possibilities for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Marra A.R.,Instituto Israelita Of Ensino E Pesquisa Albert Einstein | Edmond M.B.,Virginia Commonwealth University
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014

Compliance with hand hygiene is a good quality indicator for hospital patient safety programmes. Hand hygiene is a major infection control prevention intervention, but in many medical centres compliance rates are only c. 50%. Given the enormous number of hand hygiene opportunities in hospitals, direct observation to monitor compliance is very inefficient. However, technologies are emerging to obviate the need for direct observation. These new technologies for monitoring hand hygiene compliance are discussed in this article. © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

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