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Li H.,Montpellier University | Venier P.,University of Padua | Prado-Alvarez M.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Gestal C.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | And 6 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2010

Mussels live in diverse coastal environments experience various physical, chemical and biological conditions, which they counteract with functional adjustments and heritable adaptive changes. In order to investigate possible differences in immune system capabilities, we analyzed by qPCR the expression levels of 4 immune genes (defensin, mytilin B, myticin B, lysozyme) and HSP70 in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in 3 European farming areas {Atlantic Ocean-Ría de Vigo-Spain (RV), French Mediterranean Gulf of Lion-Palavas-Prévost lagoon (PP) and Northern Adriatic Sea-Venice-Italy (VI)} in response to one injection of one of the 3 bacterial species (Vibrio splendidus LGP32, Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus lysodeikticus), and to heat shock or cold stress. We confirmed that the 5 genes are constitutively expressed in hemocytes, defensin being the less expressed, myticin B the highest. As suspected, the same gene resulted differently expressed according to mussel group, with the biggest difference being for HSP70 and lysozyme and lowest expression of all the 5 genes in mussels from RV. In addition, gene expression levels varied according to the challenge. Most frequent effect of bacterial injections was down-regulation, especially for mytilin B and myticin B. Heat shock enhanced transcript levels, particularly in mussels from RV, whereas cold stress had no effect. In situ hybridization of labelled probes on mussel hemocytes indicated that bacterial injections did not change the mRNA patterns of defensin and myticin B whereas mytilin B mRNA almost disappeared. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that constitutive level, nature and intensity of immune gene expression regulations strongly depended from mussel group, and support the concept of gene-environment interactions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sangra P.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Troupin C.,Sistema dObservacio i Prediccio Costaner de les Illes Balears | Barreiro-Gonzalez B.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Desmond Barton E.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans | Year: 2015

In the framework of the Canaries-Iberian marine ecosystem Exchanges (CAIBEX) experiment, an interdisciplinary high-resolution survey was conducted in the NW African region of Cape Ghir (30-38′N) during August 2009. The anatomy of a major filament is investigated on scales down to the submesoscale using in situ and remotely sensed data. The filament may be viewed as a system composed of three intimately connected structures: a small, shallow, and cold filament embedded within a larger, deeper, and cool filament and an intrathermocline anticyclonic eddy (ITE). The cold filament, which stretches 110 km offshore, is a shallow feature 60 m deep and 25 km wide, identified by minimal surface temperatures and rich in chlorophyll a. This structure comprises two asymmetrical submesoscale (-18 km) fronts with jets flowing in opposite directions. The cold filament is embedded near the equatorward boundary of a much broader region of approximately 120 km width and 150 m depth that forms the cool filament and stretches at least 200 km offshore. This cool region, partly resulting from the influence of cold filament, is limited by two asymmetrical mesoscale (-50 km) frontal boundaries. At the ITE, located north of the cold filament, we observe evidence of downwelling as indicated by a relatively high concentration of particles extending from the surface to more than 200 m depth. We hypothesize that this ITE may act as a sink of carbon and thus the filament system may serve dual roles of offshore carbon export and carbon sink. Key Points: Anatomy of a major upwelling filament down to submesoscale range Comparison with other filaments and generation mechanisms involved Implications for carbon export and sinking © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Encinas P.,Instituto Nacional Investigaciones Agrarias | Rodriguez-Milla M.A.,Instituto Nacional Investigaciones Agrarias | Novoa B.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Estepa A.,University Miguel Hernández | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: Despite rhabdoviral infections being one of the best known fish diseases, the gene expression changes induced at the surface tissues after the natural route of infection (infection-by-immersion) have not been described yet. This work describes the differential infected versus non-infected expression of proteins and immune-related transcripts in fins and organs of zebrafish Danio rerio shortly after infection-by-immersion with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).Results: Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis detected variations on the protein levels of the enzymes of the glycolytic pathway and cytoskeleton components but it detected very few immune-related proteins. Differential expression of immune-related gene transcripts estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays and hybridization to oligo microarrays showed that while more transcripts increased in fins than in organs (spleen, head kidney and liver), more transcripts decreased in organs than in fins. Increased differential transcript levels in fins detected by both arrays corresponded to previously described infection-related genes such as complement components (c3b, c8 and c9) or class I histocompatibility antigens (mhc1) and to newly described genes such as secreted immunoglobulin domain (sid4), macrophage stimulating factor (mst1) and a cluster differentiation antigen (cd36).Conclusions: The genes described would contribute to the knowledge of the earliest molecular events occurring in the fish surfaces at the beginning of natural rhabdoviral infections and/or might be new candidates to be tested as adjuvants for fish vaccines. © 2010 Encinas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ceinos R.M.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Torres-Nunez E.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Chamorro R.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Novoa B.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | And 3 more authors.
Cells Tissues Organs | Year: 2013

Sparc (osteonectin) is a multifunctional matricellular glycoprotein expressed by many differentiated cells. Members of this family mediate cell-matrix interactions rather than acting as structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM); therefore, they can influence many remodelling events, including haematopoiesis. We have investigated the role of sparc in embryonic haematopoiesis using a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide-based knockdown approach. Knockdown of sparc function resulted in specific erythroid progenitor cell differentiation defects that were highlighted by changes in gene expression and morphology, which could be rescued by injection of sparc mRNA. Furthermore, a comparison of blood phenotypes of sparc and fgfs knockdowns with similar defects and the sparc rescue of the fgf21 blood phenotype places sparc downstream of fgf21 in the genetic network regulating haematopoiesis in zebrafish. These results establish a role for an ECM protein (Sparc) as an important regulator of embryonic haematopoiesis during early development in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Aguiar E.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Fuentes-Santos I.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Labarta U.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Alvarez-Salgado X.A.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas | Fernandez-Reiriz M.J.,Instituto Investigaciones Marinas
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2015

We analyzed the spatial and temporal variability of seston parameters at 4 locations in the Ría de Ares-Betanzos (NW Spain) over 5 yr. Seston content was higher in the inner part of the ría and during winter, while seston quality was higher in the outer part of the ría with maximum values during summer, and exhibited a marked relationship with water circulation. Interannual differences were detected only in the organic content of seston (which was not always well-correlated with chlorophyll a), and only at some locations. Seston quality had the strongest relationship with meteorological factors, and was the only variable that was consistent at the 4 sites within the embayment. This led us to develop an empirical model that explains the spatial-temporal variability of seston quality in terms of wind stress and river discharge. Copyright © 2015 Inter-Research.

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