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Cauli O.,Centro Investigacion Principe Felipe | Cauli O.,University of Valencia | Llansola M.,Centro Investigacion Principe Felipe | Agusti A.,Centro Investigacion Principe Felipe | And 6 more authors.
Liver International | Year: 2014

Background & Aims: Low-grade cytotoxic oedema is considered a main contributor to the neurological (motor and cognitive) alterations in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This assumption is mainly based on studies with cultured astrocytes treated with very large ammonia concentrations or with animal models of acute liver failure with strong HE. However, the possible contribution of cerebral oedema (vasogenic or cytotoxic) to cognitive or motor alterations in chronic mild HE has not been demonstrated. The aim of this work was to assess whether cerebral oedema contributes to cognitive and/or motor alterations in rats with chronic mild HE. Methods: Motor activity and coordination and different types of learning and memory were assessed in rats with porta-caval shunts (PCS). Brain oedema was assessed by gravimetry in cerebellum and cortex and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) by magnetic resonance in 16 areas. Results: Four weeks after surgery, PCS rats show reduced motor activity and coordination, impaired ability to learn a conditional discrimination task in the Y maze and reduced spatial memory in the Morris water maze. PCS rats did not show increased brain water content at 4 or 10 weeks or changes in ADC at 4 weeks. At 10 weeks, increased ADC in some areas is compatible with vasogenic but not cytotoxic oedema. Conclusion: Cerebral oedema is not involved in motor and cognitive alterations in rats (and likely in humans) with mild HE. Proper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the neurological alterations in HE is necessary to design efficient treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Lizarbe B.,Instituto Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Benitez A.,Instituto Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Benitez A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sanchez-Montanes M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 5 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

Hypothalamic appetite regulation is a vital homeostatic process underlying global energy balance in animals and humans, its disturbances resulting in feeding disorders with high morbidity and mortality. The objective evaluation of appetite remains difficult, very often restricted to indirect measurements of food intake and body weight. We report here, the direct, non-invasive visualization of hypothalamic activation by fasting using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, in the mouse brain as well as in a preliminary study in the human brain. The brain of fed or fasted mice or humans were imaged at 7 or 1.5Tesla, respectively, by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a complete range of b values (10

Lizarbe B.,Instituto Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Lizarbe B.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Lopez-Larrubia P.,Instituto Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM | Cerdan S.,Instituto Investigaciones Biomedicas Alberto Sols CSIC UAM
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2015

We evaluate the contribution of leptin-dependent anorexigenic pathways and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-dependent orexigenic pathways to the changes in hypothalamic water diffusion parameters observed in vivo by functional diffusion weighted MRI (fDWI). Mice genetically deficient in leptin (B6.V-Lepob/J) or NPY (129S-Npytm1Rpa/J) and the corresponding wild-type controls, were subjected to sequential isocaloric feeding, fasting and recovery regimes. Non-invasive fDWI measurements were performed under these conditions, and complemented with parallel determinations of food and water consumption, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), locomotor activity and endocrine profiles. Control mice showed significant increases in hypothalamic water diffusion parameters upon fasting, returning to normal values in the recovery period. Leptin deficient mice depicted permanently increased water diffusion parameters under all feeding conditions as compared to wild type controls, without important changes upon fasting or recovery. These results paralleled sustained increases in food and water intake, significantly augmented body weight, and decreased RER values or locomotor activity, thus configuring an obese phenotype. NPY-deficient mice showed significantly reduced increases (or even slight decreases) in the water diffusion parameters upon fasting as compared to wild type controls, paralleled by decreased food and water intake during the recovery period. In conclusion, leptin deficiency results in sustained orexigenic stimulation, leading to increased water diffusion parameters, while NPY deficiency lead to reduced orexigenic stimulation and water diffusion parameters. Diffusion changes are proposed to reflect net astrocytic volume changes induced by the balance between the orexigenic and anorexigenic firings of AgRP/NPY and POMC/CART neurons, respectively. Together, our results suggest that fDWI provides an adequate tool to investigate hypothalamic appetite disorders. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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