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Ogashawara I.,National Institute for Space Research | Zavattini J.A.,Claro | Tundisi J.G.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie
Brazilian Journal of Biology

The present study sought to develop a methodology to analyse water quality based on the concepts and methods of climate and climatology. Accordingly, we attempted to relate hydro- and limnometeorological techniques and methodologies to a rhythmic analysis technique developed within the context of the Brazilian geographical climatology. Our goal was to assess and analyse cyanobacterial blooms, the main index of water quality for the reservoirs of the "Alto Tietê" Basin and, consequently, the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, an area of high environmental complexity due to its high degree of development and high population density. The meteorological data used were collected by the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of São Paulo meteorological station, and the limnological data were collected through the Hydrological Monitoring System implemented by SABESP in the Billings and Guarapiranga Reservoirs and the laboratory of the same entity. The rhythmic and integrated analysis showed that the process of cyanobacterial blooms is dependent on a combination of meteorological factors as temperature and wind intensity that may disrupt the stability of the reservoir, providing the conditions necessary for the development of cyanobacteria during the stabilisation process. The pace of the Atlantic Polar Front Entrance during the winter in São Paulo is a limiting factor for the growth of cyanobacteria because of their high frequency, thus maintaining the balance of the reservoir throughout this period. The weather types those could cause a instability in the water column were: Cold Front entrance (66.67%), conflict between masses (22.22%) and the Tropical Instability Line (11.11%). The possibility for prevention and forecasting periods advise when these reservoirs should not be used, mainly with regard to recreational activities. Source

Bagatini I.L.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Spinola A.L.G.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Peres B.M.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Mansano A.S.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | And 6 more authors.
Biota Neotropica

Protozooplankton is an important component of the aquatic microbial food webs and its composition, density, and distribution reflect the chemical, physical, and biological aspects of the environment. Considering the scarce literature on freshwater protozoans in Brazil and on protozoan ecology in subtropical environments, we listed the ciliates and amoebae taxa found in 13 water bodies in São Paulo State and analyzed their abundance in relation to the environmental variables. We collected two samples in each environment, fixed immediately with mercuric chloride and stained with bromophenol blue. After microscopical analysis, 74 protozoan genera were identified and the Ciliophora were dominant in the majority of the environments. The Stichotrichia, represented mostly by the genus Halteria, occurred in all environments, and was the dominant subclass in five of them. The canonic correspondence analysis of the most frequent genera and the environmental variables showed that nitrite and nitrate were the variables that better explained the distribution of Limnostrombidium, Urotricha, and Vorticella. The densities of the genera Halteria, Coleps, and of the species Cinetochilum margaritaceum were positively affected by increasing concentrations of dissolved oxygen, particulate phosphate, conductivity, and temperature. C. margaritaceum were also negatively affected by increasing concentrations of nitrite and nitrate. Considering that we made only one sampling in each environment, the richness was high compared to the mean diversity of lakes in the São Paulo State. The Diogo Lake, located in an ecological reserve, was the richest one, confirming the need of more research on the biodiversity of more preserved environments. Source

Mancini M.,National University of Rio Cuarto | Rodriguez C.,National University of Rio Cuarto | Bagnis G.,National University of Rio Cuarto | Liendo A.,Blas Pascal University | And 3 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Biology

Piedras Moras reservoir (32° 10'27" S and 64° 16' 29" W; 832 ha), integrates a series of artificial lakes belonging to the Rio Tercero basin (Córdoba, Argentina). During March 2009 an algal bloom occurred, coinciding with several animal species mortality, mainly wild birds. The goal of this work was to establish the trophic status of the reservoir in relation to that mortality. Variables were evaluated in situ (temperature and water transparency) and samples were taken in order to identify algal species, Chl-a concentration (spectrophotometry) and toxins - total microcystines- (inmuno-enzymatic assay, ELISA). Histopathology studies were made on Fulica sp. A strong heterogenity in water transparency was observed, and "patches" of Potamogeton berteroanus distributed all along the lake, with Secchi disk minimal and medium values of 0.15 and 0.94 m. Chl-a concentration oscillated from 35.7 to 320.9 mg.m-3. Predominant phytoplankton species were Anabaena spiroides and Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae). Water temperature was 27.8 °C (±0.88). Maximal value of total microcystine concentration was 0.23 mg.L-1. Chl-a concentration at the moment when mass mortality occurred (2.022 mg.m-3), and histopathological observations, strongly suggest that the animals' death was due to cianotoxins. Source

Matsumura-Tundisi T.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie | Espindola E.L.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Tundisi J.G.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie | Souza-Soares F.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie | Degani R.M.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie
Brazilian Journal of Biology

Description of a new species of Diaptomidae (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida) Notodiaptomus oliveirai is given from the material obtained at a reservoir at Barra Bonita, SP in 1992. The new species is very similar to Notodiaptomus henseni Dahl 1894 although both species can be found in the same locality, constituting two distinct populations. Notodiaptomus oliveirai seems to be endowed with great adaptability to changes in environmental conditions, extending its distribution to all the hydrographic basins in the state of São Paulo. Source

Tundisi J.G.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie | Matsumura-Tundisi T.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie | Pereira K.C.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie | Luzia A.P.,Instituto Internacional Of Ecologia Iie | And 4 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Biology

In this paper the authors discuss the effects of cold fronts on the dynamics of freshwater ecosystems of southeast South America. Cold fronts originating from the Antarctic show a monthly frequency that promotes turbulence and vertical mixing in reservoirs with a consequence to homogenize nutrient distribution, dissolved oxygen and temperature. Weak thermoclines and the athelomixis process immediately before, during and after the passage of cold fronts interfere with phytoplankton succession in reservoirs. Cyanobacteria blooms in eutrophic reservoirs are frequently connected with periods of stratification and stability of the water column. Cold fronts in the Amazon and Pantanal lakes may produce fish killings during the process of "friagem" associated mixing events. Further studies will try to implement a model to predict the impact of cold fronts and prepare management procedures in order to cope with cyanobacteria blooms during warm and stable water column periods. Changes in water quality of reservoirs are expected during circulation periods caused by cold fronts. Source

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