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Braza F.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Cincia | Brouard S.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Chadban S.,Renal Medicine and Transplantation | Chadban S.,University of Sydney | Goldstein D.R.,Yale University
Nature Reviews Nephrology

Graft inflammation impairs the induction of solid organ transplant tolerance and enhances acute and chronic rejection. Elucidating the mechanisms by which inflammation is induced after organ transplantation could lead to novel therapeutics to improve transplant outcomes. In this Review we describe endogenous substances-damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)-that are released after allograft reperfusion and induce inflammation. We also describe innate immune signalling pathways that are activated after solid organ transplantation, with a focus on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their signal adaptor, MYD88. Experimental and clinical studies have yielded a large body of evidence that TLRs and MYD88 are instrumental in initiating allograft inflammation and promoting the development of acute and chronic rejection. Ongoing clinical studies are testing TLR inhibition strategies in solid organ transplantation, although avoiding compromising host defence to pathogens is a key challenge. Further elucidation of the mechanisms by which sterile inflammation is induced, maintained and amplified within the allograft has the potential to lead to novel anti-inflammatory treatments that could improve outcomes for solid organ transplant recipients. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Thornhill J.A.,University of Glasgow | McVeigh P.,Queens University of Belfast | Jurberg A.D.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Cincia | Kusel J.R.,University of Glasgow

It has been observed that fluorescent membrane-impermeant molecules can enter the cercariae as they penetrate mouse skin. The hypothesis to be tested was that such molecules, which included Lucifer Yellow and a variety of fluorescent dextrans, entered the parasite through the nephridiopore and excretory tubules as well as through the surface membrane. FITC-labelled poly-L-lysine (molecular weight 10 kDa), added at 4C during syringe transformation, was found to enter the nephridiopore and labelled the excretory bladder and sometimes the excretory tubules. This finding indicates that macromolecules (10 kDa) can enter the nephridiopore. It was found that linoleic acid (a normal constituent of skin) greatly stimulated uptake of Lucifer Yellow and dextrans into the excretory/subtegumental region of 2-h-old schistosomula. This correlated with an increased uptake of membrane-impermeant propidium iodide at 37C. Since increased uptake of propidium iodide occurs when membranes become permeable, the surface membrane could also be a pathway of transport of the membrane-impermeant molecules into the schistosomulum. © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source

Faustino L.,University of Sao Paulo | Mucida D.,Rockefeller University | Keller A.C.,University Federal Of So Paulo | Demengeot J.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Cincia | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology

Foxp3 +CD25 +CD4 + regulatory T cells are vital for peripheral tolerance and control of tissue inflammation. In this study, we characterized the phenotype and monitored the migration and activity of regulatory T cells present in the airways of allergic or tolerant mice after allergen challenge. To induce lung allergic inflammation, mice were sensitized twice with ovalbumin/aluminum hydroxide gel and challenged twice with intranasal ovalbumin. Tolerance was induced by oral administration of ovalbumin for 5 consecutive days prior to OVA sensitization and challenge. We detected regulatory T cells (Foxp3 +CD25 +CD4 + T cells) in the airways of allergic and tolerant mice; however, the number of regulatory T cells was more than 40-fold higher in allergic mice than in tolerant mice. Lung regulatory T cells expressed an effector/memory phenotype (CCR4(high)CD62L(low) CD44(high)CD54(high)CD69 +) that distinguished them from naive regulatory T cells (CCR4(int)CD62L(high)CD44(int)CD54(int)CD69 -). These regulatory T cells efficiently suppressed pulmonary T-cell proliferation but not Th2 cytokine production. Copyright © 2012 Lucas Faustino et al. Source

Schneider N.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Chikhi L.,CNRS Biological Evolution and Diversity Laboratory | Chikhi L.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Chikhi L.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Cincia | And 2 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology

Background. Pleistocene events have shaped the phylogeography of many taxa worldwide. Their genetic signatures in tropical species have been much less explored than in those living in temperate regions. We analysed the genetic structure of a Malagasy primate species, a mouse lemur with a wide distribution (M. murinus), in order to investigate such phylogeographic processes on a large tropical island. We also evaluated the effects of anthropogenic pressures (fragmentation/deforestation) and natural features (geographic distance, rivers) on genetic structure in order to complement our understanding of past and present processes of genetic differentiation. Results. The analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 195 samples from 15 study sites (10 from a continuous forest and five from isolated forest fragments) from two adjacent Inter-River-Systems (IRSs) revealed that forest fragmentation and the river restrict gene flow, thereby leading to an increased genetic differentiation between populations beyond the effect of isolation-by-distance. Demographic simulations detected signals of two successive spatial expansions that could be preliminarily dated to the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The haplotype network revealed geographic structure and showed deep molecular divergences within and between the IRSs that would be congruent with a two-step colonization scenario. Conclusions. This study supports the hypothesis of a relatively recent spatial expansion of the grey mouse lemur in northwestern Madagascar, which may also explain why this taxon, in contrast to its congeners, has not yet undergone allopatric speciation in the studied area and possibly across its presently wide range. © 2010 Schneider et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Brito P.H.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Cincia | Guilherme E.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Cincia | Soares H.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Cincia | Soares H.,University of Lisbon | And 2 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology

Background. The rate and fitness effects of mutations are key in understanding the evolution of every species. Traditionally, these parameters are estimated in mutation accumulation experiments where replicate lines are propagated in conditions that allow mutations to randomly accumulate without the purging effect of natural selection. These experiments have been performed with many model organisms but we still lack empirical estimates of the rate and effects of mutation in the protists. Results. We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment in Tetrahymena thermophila, a species that can reproduce sexually and asexually in nature, and measured both the mean decline and variance increase in fitness of 20 lines. The results obtained with T. thermophila were compared with T. pyriformis that is an obligate asexual species. We show that MA lines of T. thermophila go to extinction at a rate of 1.25 clonal extinctions per bottleneck. In contrast, populations of T. pyriformis show a much higher resistance to extinction. Variation in gene copy number is likely to be a key factor in explaining these results, and indeed we show that T. pyriformis has a higher mean copy number per cell than T. thermophila. From fitness measurements during the MA experiment, we infer a rate of mutation to copy number variation of 0.0333 per haploid MAC genome of T. thermophila and a mean effect against copy number variation of 0.16. A strong effect of population size in the rate of fitness decline was also found, consistent with the increased power of natural selection. Conclusions. The rate of clonal extinction measured for T. thermophila is characteristic of a mutational degradation and suggests that this species must undergo sexual reproduction to avoid the deleterious effects detected in the laboratory experiments. We also suggest that an increase in chromosomal copy number associated with the phenotypic assortment of amitotic divisions can provide an alternative mechanism to escape the deleterious effect of random chromosomal copy number variation in species like T. pyriformis that lack the resetting mechanism of sexual reproduction. Our results are relevant to the understanding of cell line longevity and senescence in ciliates. © 2010 Brito et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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