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São Paulo, Brazil

The State of São Paulo is one of the four largest national producers of non-metallic mineral resources found in the vast majority of its 645 municipalities. The extraction of sand, crushed stone, clay, limestone rock and mineral water account for over 90% of its total production. The geographical distribution of mining areas in the territory combines favourable geological occurrence constraints of mineral resources, with the urban and industrial growth, resulting in the formation of regional producer hubs, mainly in the eastern central area. The demand for large volumes of low value-added, of the majority of these minerals goods, determines the distances between the producing areas and the markets, where the cost of transport is strategic on the final price to the consumer. However, the mining activities in urban environment dispute spaces with other forms of use, resulting in sterilisation of important ineral reserves. In this sense, São Paulo has few public policies of land management, covering the mineral potential areas to ensure the future of mineral raw materials supply, providing for the recovery and future use of the space created and the disciplining of the occupation of the surroundings. Source

Sallun A.E.M.,Instituto Geologico IG | Diniz H.N.,Instituto Geologico IG | Diniz H.N.,University of Taubate

Several studies have been performed about sedimentation processes, mapping of stratigraphic units and origin of the Taubaté Basin (Brazil). However, few studies have been conducted with the subsurface sedimentary deposits of the Tremembé formation. In this study are presented geochemical data from these sediments to better understand the geological units of the Paraíba Valley region (State of São Paulo). In the same core, between the base and the top, there is no evidence of depletion or enrichment of the basic elements. Correlation analysis of elemental concentration revealed only was identified changes in lithology layers. Standing in relation to other elements analyzed the elements Ce, Cu, La, Rb, Th, U, Zr, F and S have very different concentration values along the layers, which may indicate changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during the process sedimentary. In general the concentrations for the sediments did not show values higher than the screening levels. Natural environmental anomalies were identified in the concentrations of elements barium, fluorine and sulfur in the sediments of the Tremembé Formation - indicating that there should be conservative restrictions of use and occupation in the area. Further studies should be conducted to understand the geochemical dynamics of these elements in the environment in order to protect human health and biodiversity. © 2016, Universidade Estadual Paulista. All rights reserved. Source

Sallun A.E.M.,Instituto Geologico IG | Christofoletti S.R.,Claro | Sallun Filho W.,Instituto Geologico IG | do Amaral R.,Instituto Geologico IG | Azevedo Sobrinho J.M.,Instituto Geologico IG

The Paranavaí Alloformation is a Quaternary geological unit, essentially composed of sandy deposits of colluvial origin, which occurs in the Upper Paraná River Basin. Through granulometric and X-ray diffraction analyses, it was possible to identify the different clay minerals present in the clay fraction of samples collected at the surface and in the subsurface, within the widespread area of occurrence of this geological unit. The composition of the Paranavaí Alloformation has a clay content of up to 47%, bilaminar clay minerals being identified in all samples, namely: kaolinite, followed by mica/illite and, to a lesser extent, the presence of a mixed layer of smectite and inter-stratifications of illite. Sediments of the Paranavaí Alloformation show a similar composition and proportions of clay minerals, indicating a small degree of surface and subsurface mineralogical variability in the clay fraction. Source

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