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Marti J.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera | Felpeto A.,Instituto Geografico Nacional
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2010

A new method to calculate volcanic susceptibility, i.e. the spatial probability of vent opening, is presented. Determination of volcanic susceptibility should constitute the first step in the elaboration of volcanic hazard maps of active volcanic fields. Our method considers different criteria as possible indicators for the location of future vents, based on the assumption that these locations should correspond to the surface expressions of the most likely pathways for magma ascent. Thus, two groups of criteria have been considered depending on the time scale (short or long term) of our approach. The first one accounts for long-term hazard assessment and corresponds to structural criteria that provide direct information on the internal structure of the volcanic field, including its past and present stress field, location of structural lineations (fractures and dikes), and location of past eruptions. The second group of criteria concerns to the computation of susceptibility for short term analyses (from days to a few months) during unrest episodes, and includes those structural and dynamical aspects that can be inferred from volcano monitoring. Thus, a specific layer of information is obtained for each of the criteria used. The specific weight of each criterion on the overall analysis depends on its relative significance to indicate pathways for magma ascent, on the quality of data and on their degree of confidence. The combination of the different data layers allows to create a map of the spatial probability of future eruptions based on objective criteria, thus constituting the first step to obtain the corresponding volcanic hazards map. The method has been used to calculate long-term volcanic susceptibility on Tenerife (Canary Islands), and the results obtained are also presented. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Marcos M.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies | Puyol B.,Instituto Geografico Nacional | Calafat F.M.,University of South Florida | Calafat F.M.,UK National Oceanography Center | Woppelmann G.,University of La Rochelle
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2013

Hourly sea level observations measured by five tide gauges at Santa Cruz harbor (Tenerife Island), in the Northeastern Tropical Atlantic, have been merged to build a consistent and almost continuous sea level record starting in 1927. Datum continuity was ensured using high precision leveling information. The time series underwent a detailed quality control in order to remove outliers, time drifts, and datum shifts. The resulting sea level record was then used to describe the low frequency (interannual to decadal) sea level variability at Tenerife. It was found that at interannual and longer time scales, the observed sea level changes are primarily driven by steric sea level variations. Such steric changes are originated by coastal trapped waves induced by longshore winds along the continental coast and propagate poleward. Observed sea level rise at Tenerife was 2.09 ± 0.04 mm/yr since 1927. According to the hydrographic observations in the area, only half of this trend was attributed to steric sea level changes for the top 500 m, at least since 1950. © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Santamaria-Gomez A.,Instituto Geografico Nacional
Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica | Year: 2013

Using a very short baseline interferometer, the relative stability of the YEBE and YEB1 GPS stations at the Yebes Observatory (Spain) is assessed. A baseline length bias of 1 mm was found between estimates from different observed frequencies due most likely to phase center errors resulting from antenna calibration uncertainties and/or phase center migrations caused by the electromagnetic coupling of antenna and monument. Also a bias of 0.5 mm in the vertical component of the baseline length was found between estimates from different cut-off elevation angles due to elevation-dependent errors as phase center and multipath. In addition to these biases, significant variations in the horizontal component of the baseline length were found, mostly in the form of a trend of -0.45 ± 0.10 mm/yr and an annual oscillation of amplitude 1 ± 0.1 mm and phase 155 ± 5 (beginning of June). The annual oscillation showed a high correlation with ambient temperature variations. Bedrock thermal expansion seems not to be a significant contributor to the annual variation due to the excellent agreement between the phases of the baseline and temperature annual signals. Thermoelastic expansion of the station monuments, which are comprised of concrete pillars and buildings, driven by the sunshine heating, is likely the origin of this oscillation. Near-field multipath and phase center errors are also rejected as being the main contributor to the annual signal. Conversely, near-field multipath and phase center errors may significantly contribute together to the time-correlated noise content of the baseline time series at long periods (flicker noise amplitude of 1.2 ± 0.1 mm). This research provides thus an assessment of the GPS station stability at the Yebes Observatory, which may be extended to the level of station-dependent contamination of geophysical and geodetic studies (e.g., plate tectonics, surface loadings, local ties) when similar station installations on top of buildings are used. © 2013 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i.

Villasante-marcos V.,Instituto Geografico Nacional | Pavon-carrasco F.J.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2014

A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society.

Yeguas A.G.,University of Granada | Almendros J.,University of Granada | Abella R.,Instituto Geografico Nacional | Ibanez J.M.,University of Granada
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2011

We analyse shot data recorded by eight seismic arrays during an active-source seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica) in 2005 January. For each source we estimate the apparent slowness and propagation azimuth of the first wave arrival. Since both source and receiver positions are accurately known, we are able to interpret the results in terms of the effect of the heterogeneities of the medium on wave propagation. The results show the presence of significant propagation anomalies. Nearby shots produce large apparent slowness values above 0.6 s km -1, while distant shots produce small values, down to about 0.15-0.20 s km -1. These values are different for each array, which shows the importance of the local structure under the receiver. The spatial distributions of apparent slowness are not radial as we would expect in a flat-layered medium. And again, these distributions are different for each array. The azimuth anomalies defined as the difference between the empirical estimates and the values expected in a 1-D model (i.e. the source-array directions) suggest ubiquitous wave front distortions. We have detected both positive and negative anomalies. For some shot-array geometries, azimuth anomalies are quite large with values up to 60°. The distribution of the anomalies depends on the position of the array. Some of these features can be interpreted in terms of a shallow magma chamber and shallow rigid bodies imaged by high-resolution seismic tomography. However several details remain unexplained. Further work is required, including modelling of synthetic wavefields on realistic models of Deception Island and/or apparent slowness vector tomography. © 2010 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2010 RAS.

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