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Castro-Hermida J.A.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Gonzalez-Warleta M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Mezo M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2015

The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Izquierdo F.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Castro Hermida J.A.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Fenoy S.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Mezo M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011

Diarrhea is the main health problem caused by human-related microsporidia, and waterborne transmission is one of the main risk factors for intestinal diseases. Recent studies suggest the involvement of water in the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis. However, studies related to the presence of microsporidia in different types of waters from countries where human microsporidiosis has been described are still scarce. Thirty-eight water samples from 8 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), 8 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 6 recreational river areas (RRAs) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been analyzed. One hundred liters of water from DWTPs and 50 L of water from WWTPs and RRAs were filtered to recover parasites, using the IDEXX Filta-Max® system.Microsporidian spores were identified by Weber's stain and positive samples were analyzed by PCR, using specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon hellem. Microsporidia spores were identified by staining protocols in eight samples (21.0%): 2 from DWTPs, 5 from WWTPs, and 1 from an RRA. In the RRA sample, the microsporidia were identified as E. intestinalis.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human-pathogenic microsporidia in water samples from DWTPs, WWTPs and RRAs in Spain. These observations add further evidence to support that new and appropriate control and regulations for drinking, wastewater, and recreational waters should be established to avoid health risks from this pathogen. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mezo M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Gonzalez-Warleta M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Castro-Hermida J.A.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Muino L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Ubeira F.M.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Parasitology International | Year: 2010

We carried out a field evaluation of the MM3-SERO ELISA for the diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica infection, by analysing serum and milk samples from individual cows and samples from bulk milk tanks. The diagnostic performance of the assay was assessed with serum samples from all 257 cows in eight fluke-free herds, and 240 cows with natural fasciolosis (diagnosed in vivo and/or post-mortem). Assay performance for individual milk samples was determined by analysis of paired serum and milk samples from 947 lactating cows from 33 F. hepatica-infected farms. The diagnostic usefulness of the assay for bulk tank milk was evaluated by analysis of bulk milk from infected (33) and non-infected (35) farms. For serum samples, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the assay were respectively 99.2% (95% CI: 97.0%-99.9%), 100% (95% CI: 98.6%-100%) and 0.997 (95% CI: 0.987-1.000). The only two infected animals in which serum antibodies were not detected had very low parasitic burdens (with only 2 and 3 flukes observed). The performance of the MM3 SERO ELISA for individual milk samples was similar to that for serum samples, and the stepwise linear regression revealed a strong correlation between the results for the milk samples and the serum samples (R 2=0.84; p<0.001). The agreement between results obtained with pairs of serum and milk samples was very high: there was matching classification in 96% (910/947) of paired samples (kappa=0.92; p<0.001). Individual milk samples may therefore be used, instead of serum samples, in the MM3-SERO ELISA, for reliable detection of seropositive cows. Testing bulk tank milk samples enabled detection of infected herds, even when the within-herd prevalence of infection was as low as 12%. We conclude that the MM3-SERO ELISA is a sensitive and highly specific test for serodiagnosis of bovine fasciolosis, and can be used with individual samples of either serum or milk. Use of the assay with bulk milk samples enables estimation of the within-herd prevalence of infection. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Gonzalez-Warleta M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Castro-Hermida J.A.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Carro-Corral C.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Mezo M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

A comprehensive field study was carried out with the following objectives: (a) to assess the usefulness of individual and bulk tank milk analysis for determining Neospora caninum serostatus in individual cows and herds, and (b) to study the associations between N. caninum infection status (based on milk testing), and several productive and reproductive parameters in the animals. Antibodies were detected with a commercially available ELISA test (Bio K 192/5). Analysis of paired serum and milk samples from 1134 lactating cows on 38 farms revealed that 97.6% of the ELISA results were coincident, irrespective of whether serum or milk samples were used. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that 86.0% of the variations in ELISA values in milk were due to variations in the serum. The measurement of antibodies in bulk tank milk was a good estimator of the herd level status of N. caninum infection, and enabled detection of infection in 94.7% herds with ≥10.0% seropositive cows and/or in all herds with >4% highly seropositive cows. The odds ratio for abortion in seropositive animals was 9.1 times higher than in seronegative animals. The infection serostatus was also a significant risk factor, as the odds ratio for abortion was even higher (12.0 times) in cows categorized as highly seropositive. ELISA values for the bulk milk from 387 randomly selected herds were negatively associated with average milk production. Moreover, milk production losses mainly occurred on farms categorized as highly positive (i.e. herds with ≥20.0% seropositive cows). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Castro-Hermida J.A.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Garcia-Presedo I.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Gonzalez-Warleta M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia | Mezo M.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria Xunta Of Galicia
Water Research | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the mean concentration (per litre) of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in recreational river areas (n = 28), drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs; n = 52) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs; n = 50) in Galicia (NW Spain). Water samples from rivers and from the influent (50-100 l) and the treated effluent (100 l) of the water plants were filtered using Filta-Max filters (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA). A total of 232 samples were processed and the (oo)cysts were concentrated, clarified by IMS and then detected by IFAT. The viability was determined by applying fluorogenic vital dye (PI). In the recreational areas, infective forms of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 16 (57.1%; 1-60 oocysts per litre) and 17 (60.7%; 1-160 cysts per litre) samples, respectively. In the water flowing into the water treatment plants, oocysts were detected in 21 DWTPs (40.4%; 1-13 oocysts per litre) and cysts were observed in 22 DWTPs (42.3%; 1-7 cysts per litre). In the effluents from the treatment plants, Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were identified in 17 DWTPs (32.7%; 1-4 oocysts per litre) and in 19 DWTPs (36.5%; 1-5 cysts per litre), respectively. The highest concentrations of (oo)cysts were found in the WWTPs; specifically, oocysts were detected in 29 (58.0%; 1-80 oocysts per litre) and cysts in 49 (98.0%; 2-14.400 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 32 (64.0%; 1-120 oocysts per litre) and 48 (96.0%; 2-6.000 cysts per litre) WWTP effluents, respectively. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0%. In all samples analysed. Moreover, it was found that the effluents from coastal WWTPs were discharged directly into the sea, while inland WWTPs were discharged directly into rivers. The concentrations of both enteropathogens detected in effluents from WWTPs therefore represent a significant risk to human and animal health. These results demonstrate the wide distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the environment, the ineffectiveness of treatments in DWTPs and WWTPs in reducing/inactivating both protozoa and the need to monitor the presence, viability and infectivity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water bodies. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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