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Castro-Hermida J.A.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria | Garcia-Presedo I.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria | Almeida A.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge | Almeida A.,University of Porto | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to investigate the environmental dispersal of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in two distinct areas (coastal and inland) in Galicia (NW Spain). Faecal samples were collected from healthy asymptomatic domestic (cows and sheep) and wild animals (deer and wild boars) in the selected areas. In each of the selected areas, samples of untreated water (influent) and of treated water (final effluent) were collected from each of the 12 drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) and 12 wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) under study. Analysis of a single sample from each of the 635 (coastal) and 851 (inland) domestic and wild animals selected at random revealed that the prevalences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in coastal area were 9.2% and 15.9% respectively, and in inland area, 13.7% and 26.7% respectively. In the coastal area, Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in influent and effluent samples from 2/12 (16.6%) DWTPs and 8/12 (66.6%) WTPs, while G. duodenalis cysts were detected in influent and effluent samples from 3/12 (25.0%) DWTPs and 12/12 (100%) WTPs. The concentrations were notably higher in WTPs; the mean parasite concentrations in the final treated effluent were 10 oocysts per litre and 137.8 cysts per litre for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. The mean concentration of G. duodenalis cysts per litre was significantly higher (Pb0.05) than the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre in both the influent and the effluent samples from all the treatment plants. In the coastal area, C. parvum, C. hominis and G. duodenalis assemblages A (I and II) and E were most repeatedly detected. In the inland area, C. parvum, C. andersoni and G. duodenalis assemblages A (I and II), B and E were most frequently identified. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lopez J.E.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria | Oliveira J.A.,University of Oviedo
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of one cycle of seed regeneration on the conservation of genetic diversity in five Italian ryegrass landraces (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Regeneration took place outdoors, in a sheltered site surrounded by tall Galician wheat, 20m from the nearest source of alien pollen. A balanced mixture of seed (the same weight of seed per plant) was made from 90-100 plants harvested within each population. The conservation of allele frequencies was assessed by starch gel electrophoresis. Five enzyme systems from 78-153 plants per population were examined on slices of a single histidine-citrate starch gel. Each regenerated population differed from its original landrace in at least one of the five loci. The mean heterozygosity per locus was 0.45 for original and regenerated populations, and the mean number of alleles per locus was 3.7 and 3.6 for original and regenerated populations, respectively. There was no loss of common alleles (frequency >0.05) in the five regenerated populations compared with the original populations. Only three rare alleles (frequency <0.05) were lost (e.g. alleles phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI)-2a, PGI-2c* and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH)-1d in Padrón, Pravia and Luarca, respectively). No regeneration effect (P>0.05) was observed in the six agromorphological characters. However, a significant landrace effect was observed (P<0.05) in the five agromorphological traits and the regenerated landraces deviated from the original landraces in 20% of direct comparisons. The results suggest that the method of regeneration used was not very suitable for maintaining the genetic integrity of the original landraces. © Copyright 2011 NIAB.


Campo L.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria | Monteagudo A.B.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria | Salleres B.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria | Castro P.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria | Moreno-Gonzalez J.,Instituto Galego Of Calidade Alimentaria
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this work was to study the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), in vitro organic dry matter digestibility (IVOMD), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch in samples of whole plant maize with a wide range of variability. The samples were analyzed in reflectance mode by a spectrophotometer FOSS NIRSystems 6500. Four hundred and fifty samples of wide spectrum from different origin were selected out of 3,000 scanned for the calibration set, whereas 87 independent random samples were used in the external validation. The goodness of the calibration models was evaluated using the following statistics: coefficient of determination (R2), standard error of cross-validation (SECV), standard error of prediction for external validation (SEP) and the RPDCV and RPDP indexes [ratios of standard deviation (SD) of reference analysis data to SECV and SEP, respectively]. The smaller the SECV and SEP and the greater the RPDCV and RPDP, the predictions are better. Trait measurement units were g/100 g of dry matter (DM), except for IVOMD (g/100 g OM). The SECV and RPDcv statistics of the calibration set were 1.34 and 3.2 for WSC, 2.57 and 3 for NSC and 2.3 and 2.2 for IVOMD, respectively. The SEP and RPDP statistics for external validation were 0.74 and 4.7 for WSC, 2.14 and 2.5 for NSC and 1.68 and 1.6 for IVOMD respectively. It can be concluded that the NIRS technique can be used to predict WSC and NSC with good accuracy, whereas prediction of IVOMD showed a lesser accuracy. NIRS predictions of OM, CP, NDF, ADF and starch also showed good accuracy.

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