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Tiberio F.C.S.,Federal University of São Carlos | Sampaio-E-Silva T.A.,Federal University of São Carlos | Matos D.M.S.,Federal University of São Carlos | Antunes A.Z.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2016

The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis. © 2016, Instituto Internacional de Ecologia. All rights reserved.


Kunz S.H.,Federal University of Viçosa | Martins S.V.,Federal University of Viçosa | Ivanauskas N.M.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo | Silva E.,Federal University of Viçosa | Stefanello D.,Federal University of Viçosa
Cerne | Year: 2010

The southern border of the Amazon region presents a peculiar type of forest called Seasonal Evergreen Forest. Due to the lack of knowledge on this type of forest, the objective of this study was to develop a study on the phytosociological structure of rio das Pacas basin vegetation at Querência-MT. The vegetation sampling was composed of the distribution of 200 quadrant-points in which the four individuals closest to each point, with diameter ≥ 10 cm were considered. The total density of the sampled area was of 761 ind./ha distributed into 53 species, 37 genera and 28 families. From species of high Importance Value, Ocotea leucoxylon, Myrcia multiflora, Pouteria gardneri, Sloanea eichleri, Miconia pyrifolia and Amaioua guianensis had ocurred in other Seazonal Perennial Forest areas, evidencing structural differences of this phytogeographic unit. The Shannon index (3.38) may be considered medium and the Pielou equability (0.85) indicates floristic heterogeneity of the arborous component.


PubMed | Federal University of São Carlos and Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia | Year: 2016

The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis.


PubMed | Federal University of São Carlos and Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia | Year: 2016

The introduction of a species may alter ecological processes of native populations, such as pollination and dispersal patterns, leading to changes in population structure. When the introduced and the native species are congeners, interference in pollination can also lead to hybridization. We aimed to understand the ecological aspects of Euterpe oleracea introduction in the Atlantic forest and the possible consequences for the conservation of the native congener Euterpe edulis. We analysed the population structure of palm populations, including hybrids, and observed the interaction with frugivorous birds of both palm species after E. oleracea introduction. We observed that E. edulis had significantly lower density and a smaller number of seedlings when occurring with E. oleracea. Native and introduced Euterpe species shared nine frugivorous bird species. E. oleracea and hybrids had dispersed outside the original planting area. Consequently, the risks of introduction of E. oleracea may mostly be related to the disruption of interactions between E. edulis and frugivorous birds and the spontaneous production of hybrids. Finally, the cultivation of E. oleracea and hybrids in Atlantic rainforest could affect the conservation of the already endangered E. edulis.


de Miranda D.L.C.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | de Melo A.C.G.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo | Sanquetta C.R.,Federal University of Paraná
Revista Arvore | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to develop and to fit allometric models to estimate dry biomass and total carbon in trees planted in forest restoration areas. Fit data are from 107 trees of 44 species planted in Médio Paranapanema Vale, SP, Brazil, located in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Biomes. Dry biomass and carbon mass were obtained by destructive sampling taken from aerial and underground sections of the trees. For model test and fitting, stratification of the initial data set was made in growth rhythms of the sampled species. Adjust was done by using eight linear models of each dependent variable and two were obtained from Stepwise-Forward method. The best models to estimate dry biomass and carbon stock presented adjusted determination coefficient above 0.95 and standard error below 32%. Models based on growth rate of the species presented the best statistical results, reaching R 2= 0.985 and Syx%=16.15 for dry biomass of low growth species. Models created by Stepwise procedure produced the best equations for estimates of dry biomass and total carbon, and data stratification of different growth rates of the sampled species was suitable for improving performance of the models.


The Eucalyptu grandis stands apart for its productivity and quality wood. The ideal forest management where a greater wood ratio and better quality are obtained is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the E. grandis. The present work had as its general objective the study of the variation of the specific gravity and the resistance to the compression as a function of the thinning intensity, fertilization and diameter classes in the radial position in trees of a 21-year old population of E. grandis, managed under the system of selective thinning, with the application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: three intensities of selective thinning (37, 50 and 75%), presence or absence of fertilizers, three diameter classes and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding specific gravity and compression strength. The specific gravity and compression strength of the wood were influenced by factors such as fertilizer and diameter class in almost all radial positions, increasing significantly from the pith to bark. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the specific mass, compression strength and radial position.


Kolb R.M.,Paulista University | Pilon N.A.L.,University of Campinas | Durigan G.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2016

Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i) recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii) under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii) in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT) and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion. © 2016, Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. All rights reserved.


De Lima I.L.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo | Garcia R.,Faculdades Oswaldo Cruz | Longui E.L.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo | Florsheim S.M.B.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo
Scientia Forestalis/Forest Sciences | Year: 2011

For the better use of Tectona grandis wood it is necessary to study the relationship between the anatomy and wood quality with the factors that may affect growth conditions. Spacing is one of growth factors to be considered for production and a better quality of teak wood. The aim of the present work was to verify the influence of spacing on the cellular dimensions of the wood of a 31-year old Tectona grandis tree; and its radial variability. In this study, we used the e×perimental delineation of randomized blocks with three treatments (3 × 1.5; 3 × 2 and 3 × 2.5m) and five replications, and where 15 trees with average diameter were chosen in the region of Pederneiras/SP. From each tree a disc of 7cm thickness at DBH (diameter at breast height) was removed and from each disc samples were taken in different distances in pith-to-bark radial direction (pith, intermediate and bark). It was concluded that the fiber length, fiber wall thickness and frequency vessel were influenced by spacing of planting. A good positive relationship was found between fiber length and fiber wall thickness with radial position and a negative relation between vessel diameter and ray frequency with the radial position.


Forest edges are permanently under pressure by natural factors and disturbances, such as fire, which can cause changes in plant communities. We studied nature and extension of damages and also the resilience of the plant community after fire in the seasonal semideciduous forest, at Estação Ecológica de Caetetus, Galia municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Vegetation survey comprised five transects 50 m long (10 m wide) from the edge to the forest interior in the burnt forest, and the same area in the unburnt continuous forest, used for comparisons. Every transect was divided in five 10 × 10 m plots. Tree species were identified and measured from a minimum height of 1.7 meter. Vegetation cover of every life form was assessed by line interception method in every plot. Data were collected at six, 15 and 24 months after fire and separately analysed for the external strip (0-20 m from the edge) and internal strip (20-50 m). Structural changes were larger at the external strip, where arboreal biomass was totally lost, while 11% remained in the internal strip. The difference in species number was high in the first evaluation after fire - 43 species less in the burnt forest, but decreased to only 14 species after 24 months, a demonstration of high resilience in terms of arboreal species richness. Biomass recovery take longer at the external strip (11 years estimated) compared to the internal strip (five years).


Daronco C.,São Paulo State University | de Melo A.C.G.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo | Machado J.A.R.,Instituto Florestal Do Estado Of Sao Paulo
Revista Arvore | Year: 2012

Intercropping of trees and annual crops could be an important alternative for promoting forest restoration in small farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intercropping of cassava (Manihot sculenta Crantz) with native trees for restoration of natural forest in riparian areas in the western São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replications for comparing two restoration systems: pure afforestation and afforestation intercropped with cassava. It was evaluated the variables related to seedling development (height, crown diameter, crown cover, and height/crown diameter ratio), mortality and the economic impact were assessed for using cassava. No differences were found between treatments for any dendrometrical variable and mortality. Economic impact of the intercroppoing treatment was positive because costs for establishment of intercropped system were partially reduced by the income from the cassava crop, which covered 32% of total costs. Cassava income made final costs 19% lesser than restoration in the pure afforestation system.

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