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São Paulo, Brazil

In Brazil, the studies with pelleting of seed of forest species are still scarce; the likely reasons are the high cost of this technique and the little use of direct seeding with forest species. Whereas forestry seeds show great variation in size, shape and weight to the different species, the use of the pelleting is presented as a promising alternative as way to standardize sizes and shapes, favoring its use in ecological restoration projects by improving of plantability and / or species for which it was developed a breeding work. The pelleted seeds has other advantages, as it allow the incorporation of several products that helping in proper development of molting, reducing production costs. Thus, there is a gain on the safety at work, it provides a reduction of dust and of inhalation (e.g. pesticides) by operators as well as the protection of the environment. Source

Despite its great extension and biodiversity, there are still sampling gaps in the Cerrado. This region has shown drastic changes due to the conversion of natural areas into pastures and plantations. In the last four decades, around 88.5% of the Cerrado areas in the state of São Paulo were supressed. Only 0.8% of Cerrado original cover in the state (14%) remain as pristine habitats. We present the species composition, abundance and use of habitat of amphibians and reptiles recorded at Estação Ecológica de Assis, a remnant of Cerrado in the state of São Paulo. The survey was conducted between September 2007 and March 2008 during seven monthly field trips of five days each, totaling 35 sampling days. Surveys were conducted using pitfall traps (AIQ), incidental encounters (EO), auditory encounters (PA), and visual encounters (PV). In addition to the field samples, we included records of species occurring on the municipality of Assis, obtained at the main scientific collections of amphibians and reptiles in the state of São Paulo. We recorded 27 amphibian species, belonging to 13 genera and six families (Bufonidae, Cycloramphidae, Hylidae, Leiuperidae, Leptodactylidae, and Microhylidae), and 53 reptile species belonging to 38 genera and 13 families (Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Anomalepididae, Boidae, Colubridae, Dipsadidae, Elapidae, and Viperidae). This survey is an important contribution to the knowledge about these assemblages in the highly threatened Cerrado of the state of São Paulo. Remnants such as the Estação Ecológica de Assis are extremely important for the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in the state and in the Cerrado region. Source

de Assis A.C.C.,Instituto Agronomico | Coelho R.M.,Instituto Agronomico | da Pinheiro E.S.,Federal University of Amazonas | Durigan G.,Instituto Florestal
Plant Ecology

Soil is one of the environmental elements to influence Cerrado vegetation. Aluminum toxicity of Cerrado soils is well known, but the importance of water availability is still to be understood, especially in Cerrado under wetter climates. We studied the association between Cerrado physiognomies (cerradosensu stricto and cerradão) and morphological, chemical, physical, and physical-hydrical soil attributes at southwestern São Paulo State, Brazil. Characterization of soil morphology, classification and sample collection for particle-size distribution, and chemical and water-retention analyses were carried out in 15 permanent plots, where vegetation was characterized floristically and structurally. Simple correlation and canonical correspondence analyses were performed with soil data. Classification of soils (U. S. Soil Taxonomy) with very low clay contents was not able to separate soils under cerradão-forestry physiognomy-from those under cerradosensu stricto-savannic physiognomy, even though it tends to distinguish soils under greater biomass from those under lower biomass physiognomies. High soil acidity of all studied soils and increased at the sites with greater contents of organic matter, mainly with the cerradão physiognomy, precluded Al toxicity as a cause of the physiognomic gradient within Cerrado. Clay content, microporosity, and residual and saturation moisture were the most significant soil attributes to correlate directly with the cerradão physiognomy, indicating that water availability is the main factor explaining the physiognomic gradient of Cerrado vegetation in a local scale, where climate and soil fertility do not vary spatially. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Durigan G.,Instituto Florestal | Guerin N.,Instituto Socioambiental | da Costa J.N.M.N.,Instituto Socioambiental
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Over the past two decades, the headwaters of the Xingu Basin in the Amazon have been subjected to one of the highest deforestation rates in Brazil, with negative effects on both terrestrial and aquatic systems. The environmental consequences of forest land conversion have concerned the indigenous people living downstream, and this was the first motivation for the Y Ikatu Xingu campaign-'save the good water of the Xingu'. Among the objectives of the initiative was to restore riparian forests on private land across the basin. For a region where the rivers, rainstorms, forest remnants, distances and farms are huge, the challenges were equally large: crossing the biotic and abiotic thresholds of degradation, as well as addressing the lack of technology, know-how, seeds, forest nurseries, trained personnel and roads, and the lack of motivation for restoration. After 6 years, despite the remarkable advances in terms of technical innovation coupled with a broad and effective social involvement, the restored areas represent only a small portion of those aimed for. The still high costs of restoration, the uncertainties of legislation and also the global economy have been strong forces constraining the expansion of restored forests. Additional efforts and strategies are necessary to overcome these barriers. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

A new species of Ocotea Aubl. (Lauraceae), Ocotea marumbiensis Brotto & Baitello, is described and illustrated. The species with hermaphrodite flowers resembles Ocotea indecora (Schott) Mez and occurs in the Atlantic Forest in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Source

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