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Barwald Bohm G.M.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSul | Rombaldi C.V.,Federal University of Pelotas | Castilhos D.,Federal University of Pelotas | Rodrigues Alves B.J.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Gouvea Rumjanek N.,Embrapa Agrobiologia
Crop Science | Year: 2014

Genetically-modified soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] resistant to glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl- glycine) herbicide (GR) has turned out to be one of the most highly-used products of plant engineering. The impacts of the soybean, genetically transformed for glyphosate resistance, on the environment under Brazilian soil and climatic conditions are still unknown. For this purpose, two soybean genotypes, one genetically modified (GR BRS 244 RR) and a conventional isogenic genotype were grown under different weed-control methods: hand weeding and glyphosate or imazethapyr herbicide application. The study was performed in Rio Grande do Sul State with evaluations of soil microbial biomass and respiration, biological nitrogen fixation, isoflavone content in seed and glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) residues in seeds and soil. The use of GR did not affect soil microbial population, biological nitrogen fixation, or plant yield or isoflavone contents in seed. However, even though we used the recommended application doses, the glyphosate residues in the seeds were above levels permitted by Brazilian law. Also, AMPA residues were detected in the soil and the seeds. © Crop Science Society of America.

Taira D.E.,Instituto Federal Sul rio grandense IFSul | Schettini E.B.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Silvestrini J.H.,Grande Rio University
Procedia IUTAM | Year: 2015

The purpose of this numerical work is focused on the dynamics of a stably stratified inclined mixing layer. Both effects, stratifi- cation and slope, are considered through relevant flow parameters. Chebyshev's approximations and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are used in the context of linear stability analysis for different Richardson numbers and slopes. Two-dimensional temporal and spatial simulations are employed to examine baroclinic layer and the evolution of primary and secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. In three-dimensional configuration, only stratification effects are considered. The numerical results show persistence of the translative instability with formation of intense longitudinal vortices highly influenced by the Richardson number. © 2015 The Authors.

de Avila J.M.M.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSUL | Toralles R.P.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSUL | Cantillano R.F.F.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Peralba M.C.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Pizzolato T.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012

During the storage a loss of volatile compounds responsible for the aroma and an increase of undesirable compounds can occur leading to a decrease in the strawberry quality, a reduction of the shelf life and product rejection by the consumers. In the present work the influence of the planting system (conventional and organic) and the storage period (0, 2, 5 and 8 days) upon physical and chemical characteristics (FCC) as well as on strawberry volatile compounds (VC) in the cultivars 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real' were evaluated using strawberries from a commercial orchard from Pelotas/RS. The fruits were harvested in a stage of commercial maturation and sound appearance. The experimental planning was randomized, in triplicate of fifteen fruits. The strawberries were stored at 1°C and 90-95% of relative humidity (RH). The mass loss, the instrumental color [L*, a*, b* and hue angle (H)], the firmness, the soluble solids (SS), the titratable acidity (TA), the SS/TA ratio, the pH and VC content were determined. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and significant differences were determined using Tukey's test (P<0.05). The results show that pH, SS, relation SS/TA, decay and mass loss have increased during storage. The firmness varied irregularly and TA and H decreased significantly. The values of VC increased with the exception of methyl acetate (MA). Ethanol (Et), acetaldehyde (AA) and ethyl acetate (EA) correlated positively with decay for organic cultivated 'Camino Real'. In a general way, the MA correlated inversely with decay with the exception of conventional cultivated 'Camino Real'. Strawberries from both cultures can be stored for five days without loosing quality regardless the production system.

Hallal M.O.C.,Instituto Federal Sul rio grandense IFSul | Schoffel E.R.,Federal University of Pelotas | Brixner G.F.,Federal University of Pelotas | Radunz A.L.,Federal University of Pelotas
IRRIGA | Year: 2013

The objective of the present study was to estimate the reference evapotranspiration using the Penman-Monteith method and to relate this estimative with the values of precipitation occurred in the same periods. Were used daily meteorological data from the Agroclimatic Station of Pelotas in the period between the years 1971 and 2010. The estimated values were organized in ten-day periods, monthly and seasonally in order to provide more precise information and to characterize the behavior of the evapotranspiration in each season of the year. These values were compared to the precipitation in order to verify the periods when the difference of precipitation and evapotranspiration was negative. We concluded that the annual average of the reference evapotranspiration for Pelotas is 2.25 mm d-1 and the highest values were obtained in summer and spring (3.97 and 3.37 mm d-1 respectively); that in the period comprehended between October 20th and January 20th the difference between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration is negative and that the monthly average is not a good predictor to analyse this difference because, as the standard deviation of the data serie of precipitation is too big, it masks long periods of drought.

Ebani P.R.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Fontana L.A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Campos P.T.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSul | Rosso E.F.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2016

We have reported the synthesis involving the condensation of pyridoxal with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine obtained a tripodal ligand, as well as its subsequent complexation with the manganese(II) and nickel(II) ions. The structural analysis revealed, in the case of complex 1, the formation of a monomeric complex with Mn(II) species. In the complex 2, with Ni(II) metal ion, we describe the probable mechanism for the formation of hemiacetal in these complexes. Only the complex 1 catalyze the dismutation of superoxide efficiently with IC50 equal to 3.38 μM, evaluated through the nitro blue tetrazolium photoreduction inhibition superoxide dismutase assay, in aqueous solution of pH 7.8. Density functional theory calculations are done to characterize and compare the molecular frontier orbitals of the Mn(II) and Ni(II) complexes. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Vieira G.D.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSul | Castilhos D.D.,Federal University of Pelotas | Castilhos R.M.V.,Federal University of Pelotas
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

Rice, grown in all Brazilian regions, is particularly important in the southern region, where 60 % of the total production of this cereal is raised. The rice parboiling process is a hydrothermal treatment of partially cooking the grains in the husk, improving the nutrition al value. This process results in an effluent rich in organic matter and nutrients, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of a soil based on changes of some microbial properties arising from the addition of anaerobic sludge from an effluent treatment plant of parboiled rice. Two experiments were conducted. The first in a greenhouse, with corn grown on an Ultisol enriched with anaerobic sludge of parboiling rice at doses of: 2.15; 4.31; 8.62; 12.93; and 17.24 g kg -1. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen and the microbial biomass were evaluated. The second experiment was developed in the laboratory using respirometric vessels with the same soil and treatments as in the previous experiment; the microbial activity was determined by basal respiration. Soil without fertilization and NPK fertilized soil constituted control treatments. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications. The sludge increased soil microbial activity, and the carbon and nitrogen contents of the microbial biomass, and decreased the soil metabolic quotient. Sludge application did not affect the ratios COT/NT, CM/NM, CM/ COT and NM/NT in comparison to the NPK treatment. Sludge increased the contents of soil organic carbon and caused a decrease in the levels of mineral N (NH 4 + and NO 3 -), compared to the NPK treatment. The sludge originated from rice parboiling can be applied to soil at the recommended doses, with benefits for the microbial activity and biomass.

Vieira G.D.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSul | Castilhos D.D.,Federal University of Pelotas | Castilhos R.M.V.,Federal University of Pelotas
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

The residue of the process of parboiling rice contains high amounts of elements such asnitrogen, phosphorus and others which, once incorporated into the soil, could serve as a sourceof utrients. Accordingly, the present study evaluated some properties of an Ultisol, the dry matter production and nutritional status of corn grown after applying an anaerobic sludge originated from the process of parboiling rice. The experiment was conducted in 4 kg pots filled with soil, in four replications. The following treatments were studied: control, NPK fertilization, 2.15, 4.31, 8.62, 12.93, and17.24 g kg -1 sludge. Sludge application from parboiled rice increased the maize dry matter yield, as well as pH, electrical conductivity and the concentration of N, P, K and Na in the soil. The sludge also increased the concentration of N, P and K and decreased Ca and Mg in the maize shoots.

Conceicao C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Conceicao C.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSUL | Posser G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Reis R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
LASCAS 2016 - 7th IEEE Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems, R9 IEEE CASS Flagship Conference | Year: 2016

In this work a greedy cell clustering technique is proposed to reduce the number of transistors of circuits. Reducing the amount of transistors can provide leakage power reduction. The clusterization is applied to a set of connected cells with fanout one. These cells are replaced by a equivalent logic complex cell. Hereafter, the layout of any cluster can be automatically designed by using a layout generation tool. The ITC'99 benchmark circuits are synthesized to the 45nm Open Cell Library. The clustering technique presented in this work is able to provide a reduction in the number of transistors of 9.8%, on average, over the synthesis using all cells available in the library. We show that the set of logic functions used by the input netlist influences the results obtained by clustering. For a netlist synthesized without the complex cells of the library our clustering technique reduced the number of transistors in up to 22.3% when compared to the original netlist. © 2016 IEEE.

Saraiva R.,Instituto Federal Sul rio grandense IFSul | Ruzicki J.C.,Instituto Federal Sul rio grandense IFSul | De Souza A.,Instituto Federal Sul rio grandense IFSul | Soares R.I.,Federal University of Pelotas
LASCAS 2016 - 7th IEEE Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems, R9 IEEE CASS Flagship Conference | Year: 2016

Stochastic Computing (SC) is a fault tolerant design paradigm where numeric data are converted to probabilities on streams of random digital bits. This representation allows computing on low complexity hardware. SC allows a significant area reduction and an increased tolerance to transient errors, but presents high latency to achieve a moderate accuracy. Recent papers address this issue using parallelism and stochastic multibit number representations. In this paper, Multilevel Stochastic Coding (MSC), a new stochastic representation based on range segmentation is presented and its operators are developed using FPGA design flow and compared to alternative approaches. A comparison in terms of area and latency is applied between approaches to achieve a given signal to noise ratio (SNR). Results show that MSC presents a significant latency reduction with a smaller area penalty. © 2016 IEEE.

Elicker C.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSul | Filho P.J.S.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSul | Castagno K.R.L.,Instituto Federal Sul Rio Grandense IFSul
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2014

This paper presents the application of electrokinetic remediation in the treatment of sludge in a sewage treatment station. The study consisted of, in a first step, the characterization of physicochemical parameters of sludge and, in a second step, the implementation of the electrokinetic remediation technique. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in sludge samples, before and after the experiment, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 40 hours of experiment, considering an electrolyte flow-rate of 1.34 L.h-1 at a voltage of 20 V, the removal rate of all the metals accompanied was over 50%; the highest removal efficiency was for Pb, with 72.49%. The results show the feasibility of using the electrochemical technique of electrokinetic remediation for metal removal from a sludge sewage treatment station.

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