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Calderano A.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Gomes P.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Lelis G.R.,Federal University of Viçosa | Donzele J.L.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Saude e Producao Animal | Year: 2016

To determine the ideal digestible tryptophan-to-digestible lysine ratio in diets for laying hens of 42 to 58 weeks of age, 240 Hy-Line W-36 hens at 42 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments, eight replicates and six birds per experimental unit. At 42 weeks of age, the birds were subjected to experimental treatments that consisted of diets with equal amounts of nutrients, except for the digestible tryptophan level. The digestible tryptophan levels in the experimental diets were 0.149, 0.160, 0.171, 0.182 and 0.193%, generating digestible tryptophan-to-digestible lysine ratios of 21.5, 23.1, 24.6, 26.2 and 27.8%. The digestible lysine level in the diets was sub-optimal (0.694%). The same ratios between lysine and the other amino acids were maintained in all experimental diets. The ideal digestible tryptophan-to-digestible lysine ratio was estimated through the studied parameters using analysis of variance and polynomial regression analysis (a = 0.05). The digestible tryptophan-to-digestible lysine ratio in diets quadratically affected egg production, egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass and use efficiency of digestible lysine for egg mass. However, there were no effect (P>0.05) on egg weight, feed conversion per dozen eggs, use efficiency of digestible lysine for number of eggs produced, percentage of egg components and weight gain. The digestible tryptophan-to-digestible lysine ratio estimated for theses parameters ranged from 23.6 to 24.3%. The digestible tryptophan-to-digestible lysine ratio recommended in diets for laying hens of 42 to 58 weeks of age is 24.3%.


Vieira P.A.F.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Souza C.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | De Almeida Barbosa A.,Federal University of Viçosa | D'Avila Lima H.J.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | And 6 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2016

We evaluated the effect of including 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% mango waste meal (MWM) variety UBA in corn and soybean meal-based diet son the serum lipid profile of broilers. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and six replicates with 20 birds per experimental unit. Concentrations of creatinine, albumin, total protein, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TAG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), were evaluated at the ages of 14, 28 and 42 days, with 30 birds evaluated per age. At 14 days, there was no difference serum creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL, triacylglycerols, total proteins or VLDL-C concentrations as compared with control. Albumin concentration was the highest at the MWM inclusion levels of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0%. At 28 days, triacylglycerols, VLDL-C and LDL-C were the lowestat 7.5% inclusion whereas at 42 days, these same variables were the lowest with addition of 10.0% meal. At 14, 28 and 42 days of age, the VLDL-C, LDL-C and total TAG contents were found to decrease at mango waste meal inclusion levels of 5.0 and 7.5% in the diets, which maybe considered an indicator of improvements in the metabolic conditions of broilers.


Goncalves B.S.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Goncalves B.S.B.,Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais | Adamowicz T.,Federal University of Paraná | Louzada F.M.,Federal University of Paraná | And 2 more authors.
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2015

Actimetry has been used to estimate the sleep-wake cycle instead of the rest-activity rhythm. Although algorithms for assessing sleep from actimetry data exist, it is useful to analyze the rest-activity rhythm using nonparametric methods. This would then allow rest-activity rhythm stability, fragmentation and amplitude to be quantified. In addition, sleep and wakefulness efficiency can be quantified separately. These variables have been used in studies analyzing the effect of age, diseases and their respective treatments on human circadian rhythmicity. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the main results from published articles and devised a functional model of interaction among the several components involved in generating the sleep-wake cycle. The nonparametric variables render it possible to infer the main characteristics of circadian rhythms, such as synchronization with a zeitgeber, and its amplitude and robustness. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Castro J.,University of Sao Paulo | Zanini M.,University of Sao Paulo | Goncalves B.D.S.B.,Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais | Coelho F.M.S.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2015

Background: At-risk mental states (ARMS) are clinical syndromes that are associated with higher risk, compared with the general population, for developing psychosis and bipolar disorder. Circadian rhythm misalignments have been proposed to be part of this early phase of the clinical course. Objective: To compare circadian rhythm of activity and rest changes between ARMS individuals and a healthy control group. Methods: Forty volunteers of both genders, aged between 13 and 27. years old, participated in this study (n= 20 ARMS group, and n= 20 healthy controls). The ARMS individuals were classified as ultra-high risk for psychosis according to the CAARMS (. Comprehensive Assessment of At-risk Mental State) or at high risk for bipolar disorder according to criteria proposed by Bechdolf and colleagues. Participants used an actigraph for fifteen days, kept a sleep diary, and completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results: Compared with healthy volunteers, the ARMS group presented worse sleep quality (P= 0.010); longer nap durations (P= 0.038), shorter wake times (P= 0.001), higher total sleep times (P= 0.011), and shorter activity duration (P= 0.021), sleep rhythms were more fragmented, the circadian rest-activity rhythms were less synchronized with the dark-light cycle and had lower amplitudes of motor activity. Conclusion: The results suggest alterations in the circadian rest-activity rhythms (and likely in sleep-wake cycle patterns) in ARMS individuals compared with healthy controls. It is possible that circadian rhythms of activity and rest changes are one of the prodromal clinical and behavioral expressions of the brain changes that underlie ARMS individuals. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Federal University of São Paulo, Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Schizophrenia research | Year: 2015

At-risk mental states (ARMS) are clinical syndromes that are associated with higher risk, compared with the general population, for developing psychosis and bipolar disorder. Circadian rhythm misalignments have been proposed to be part of this early phase of the clinical course.To compare circadian rhythm of activity and rest changes between ARMS individuals and a healthy control group.Forty volunteers of both genders, aged between 13 and 27years old, participated in this study (n=20 ARMS group, and n=20 healthy controls). The ARMS individuals were classified as ultra-high risk for psychosis according to the CAARMS (Comprehensive Assessment of At-risk Mental State) or at high risk for bipolar disorder according to criteria proposed by Bechdolf and colleagues. Participants used an actigraph for fifteen days, kept a sleep diary, and completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire.Compared with healthy volunteers, the ARMS group presented worse sleep quality (P=0.010); longer nap durations (P=0.038), shorter wake times (P=0.001), higher total sleep times (P=0.011), and shorter activity duration (P=0.021), sleep rhythms were more fragmented, the circadian rest-activity rhythms were less synchronized with the dark-light cycle and had lower amplitudes of motor activity.The results suggest alterations in the circadian rest-activity rhythms (and likely in sleep-wake cycle patterns) in ARMS individuals compared with healthy controls. It is possible that circadian rhythms of activity and rest changes are one of the prodromal clinical and behavioral expressions of the brain changes that underlie ARMS individuals.


Paiva A.P.,Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais | de Piccolo M.B.F.,Federal University of Lavras | de Ribeiro J.P.A.,Instituto Federal IF | Ferreira E.B.,Federal University of Alfenas | Ciabotti S.,Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais
Ciencia e Agrotecnologia | Year: 2012

Food bars are products obtained from the union of a number of components, standing out in the snack category due to their portability attribute with a focus on convenience and health. Utilization of by-products and agroindustrial food waste as ingredients in the making of food bars is highly important due to the utilization of leftovers of marked nutritional and functional value and decrease of the production cost. This work intended to evaluate the chemical and physicochemical aspects of food bars made with the by-products broken rice (BR) and pequi nut (PN), soybean extract residue (SER), and pineapple waste (PW). Distinct proportions of BR: SER respectively were used, amounting to five treatments: 1:0 (A); 3:1 (B); 1:1 (C); 1:3 (D) and 0:1(E) and fixed amounts of the other components. For the statistical analysis, variance analysis and the Tukey test were performed to 5% significance. The moisture, protein, lipid, ash, mineral, and dietary fiber contents were directly increased as the SER was increased and the amount of BR was decreased. However, the opposite was found with both carbohydrates and calories. The soluble solids, pH and water activity values presented increases with the increased soybean extract residue. All the treatments presented slightly acidic pH and water activity bellow 0.6, favoring microbiological safety. In the chemical score, treatment A presented lysine as the limiting aminoacid in relation to the Food and Agriculture Organization - FAO/WHO reference (1990). The food bars can be considered rich in dietary fiber and with considerable nutritional support. Treatments D and E proved better in the set of the variables studied for human consumption.


Lianda R.L.P.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lianda R.L.P.,Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais | Sant'ana L.D.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Echevarria A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Castro R.N.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The antioxidant activities and total polyphenolic content of five multifloral and four orange blossom Brazilian honey samples and their phenolic extracts were investigated. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds were carried out by HPLC-DAD (high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection). The radical scavenging activities, determined with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH •) and expressed as EC 50, ranged from 10.81 to 52.64 mg mL -1 for honey and 6.17 to 52.87 mg mL -1 for the extracts. The extract antioxidant activities were also determined by 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and the results varied from 46.53 to 383.49 mmol TE 100 g -1 and 34.99 to 408.14 mol Fe(II) 100 g -1, respectively. It was also evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents by the Folin-Denis and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents were found to be highly correlated. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.


Wolff G.,Federal University of Lavras | Pereira G.C.,Federal University of Lavras | Pereira G.C.,Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais | Castro E.M.,Federal University of Lavras | And 2 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2012

This study shows, in a multiple-level approach, the responses of Salvinia auriculata to Cd pollution in aquatic ecosystems. S. auriculata ramets were cultivated in nutrient solution and subjected to five treatments with Cd for ten days. At the end of the experiment, the number of new ramets and the dry biomass were determined. For ultrastructural observations, the leaves of S. auriculata were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. At the end of the experiment, the plants exposed to Cd showed damage in the leaves including necrosis and chlorosis, stomate deformations and damaged trichomes. We observed a decrease in the number of new ramets and dry biomass of S. auriculata following the increase in Cd concentration in the solution. At the ultrastructural level, leaves exposed to Cd presented chloroplast deformations and deterioration in the cell wall. All the symptoms of toxicity were directly proportionate to the concentration of Cd in the solution. The results suggests that S. auriculata shows good potential for use as a bioindicator and it can be used in the biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems contaminated by Cd.


Melo P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Goncalves B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Goncalves B.,Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais | Menezes A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Azevedo C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
Chronobiology International | Year: 2013

Synchronized state of activity and rest might be attained by mechanisms of entrainment and masking. Most zeitgebers not only act to entrain but also to mask circadian rhythms. Although the light-dark (LD) cycle is the main zeitgeber of circadian rhythms in marmosets, social cues can act as weaker zeitgebers. Evidence on the effects of social entrainment in marmosets has been collected in isolated animals or in pairs where activity is not individually recorded. To characterize the synchronization between the daily activity profiles of individuals in groups under LD conditions, the motor activity of animals from five groups was continuously monitored using actiwatches for 15 days during the 5th, 8th, and 11th months of life of juveniles. Families consisting of twins (4 ♂♀/1 ♂♂) and their parents were maintained under controlled lighting (LD 12:12 h), temperature, and humidity conditions. Synchronization was evaluated through the synchrony between the circadian activity profiles obtained from the Pearson correlation index between possible pairs of activity profiles in the light and dark phases. We also calculated the phase-angle differences between the activity onset of one animal in relation to the activity onset of each animal in the group (ψon). A similar procedure was performed for activity offset (ψoff). By visual analysis, the correlation between the activity profiles of individuals within each family was stronger than that of individuals from different families. A mixed-model analysis showed that within the group, the correlation was stronger between twins than between twins and their parents in all families, except for the family in which both juveniles were males. Because a twin is an important social partner for juveniles, a sibling is likely to have a stronger influence on its twin's activity rhythm than other family members. Considering only the light phase, the second strongest correlation was observed between the activity profiles of the individuals in the reproductive pair. Regarding the parameters ψon and ψoff, the juvenile/juvenile dyad had lower values than the other dyads, but these differences did not reach statistical significance in relation to all dyads. Comparing the results of the ψon and ψoff, and correlation indices, we suggest that the latter could detect differences between the animals that were not observed in the results of the phase-angle differences. These differences could be related to changes that occur during the active phase but not only in a particular phase, such as the temporal changes during the activity phase that characterize unimodal or bimodal patterns. Based on the differences in the correlations between individuals subjected to the same LD routine, we suggest that social cues modulate the circadian activity profiles of marmosets as a result of interactions between the animals within each group. Future studies are necessary to characterize the mechanisms of synchronization that are involved in this social modulation. (Author correspondence: carolina@cb.ufrn.br) © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Goncalves B.S.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Goncalves B.S.B.,Instituto Federal Sudeste Of Minas Gerais | Cavalcanti P.R.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Tavares G.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | And 2 more authors.
Sleep Science | Year: 2014

Circadian rhythmicity in humans has been well studied using actigraphy, a method of measuring gross motor movement. As actigraphic technology continues to evolve, it is important for data analysis to keep pace with new variables and features. Our objective is to study the behavior of two variables, interdaily stability and intradaily variability, to describe rest activity rhythm. Simulated data and actigraphy data of humans, rats, and marmosets were used in this study. We modified the method of calculation for IV and IS by modifying the time intervals of analysis. For each variable, we calculated the average value (IVm and ISm) results for each time interval. Simulated data showed that (1) synchronization analysis depends on sample size, and (2) fragmentation is independent of the amplitude of the generated noise. We were able to obtain a significant difference in the fragmentation patterns of stroke patients using an IVm variable, while the variable IV60 was not identified. Rhythmic synchronization of activity and rest was significantly higher in young than adults with Parkinson's when using the ISM variable; however, this difference was not seen using IS60. We propose an updated format to calculate rhythmic fragmentation, including two additional optional variables. These alternative methods of nonparametric analysis aim to more precisely detect sleep-wake cycle fragmentation and synchronization. © 2014 FLASS. All rights reserved.

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