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Pereira G.S.,Federal University of Ceara | Machado F.L.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao Ciencia E Tecnologia | da Costa J.M.C.,Federal University of Ceara
Revista Ciencia Agronomica

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of carnauba-based wax on the quality and conservation of the Orange cv. Valencia Delta produced in an area of semi-arid climate, during ambient storage (24 ± 2 °C and 40% ± 5 RH). The influence of the use of the coating on the physical properties (weight loss, peel moisture and flavedo colouration) and the physicochemical properties (soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids / titratable acidity ratio, ascorbic acid, yellow flavonoids and total polyphenols) was evaluated every four days for a period of 28 days. An increasing weight loss was seen during storage, the coated fruits however, lost weight at far lower rates than the control fruits. Accordingly, peel moisture decreased during storage, being more pronounced in the control fruits. The levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, yellow flavonoids and total polyphenols increased, while the ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity and the pH decreased during storage. The application of a carnauba-based coating prolonged the postharvest life of the 'Valencia Delta' orange grown in the state of Ceará, through a significant reduction in weight loss, enhancement in the brightness of the flavedo and maintenance of the physical and physicochemical properties during ambient storage. Source

Moraes A.M.,University of Campinas | Jorge S.A.C.,Instituto Butantan | Astray R.M.,Instituto Butantan | Suazo C.A.T.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | And 10 more authors.
Biotechnology Advances

In the present review we discuss strategies that have been used for heterologous gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells using plasmid vectors. Since the growth of S2 cells is not dependent on anchorage to solid substrates, these cells can be easily cultured in suspension in large volumes. The factors that most affect the growth and gene expression of S2 cells, namely cell line, cell passage, inoculum concentration, culture medium, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, hydrodynamic forces and toxic metabolites, are discussed by comparison with other insect and mammalian cells. Gene expression, cell metabolism, culture medium formulation and parameters involved in cellular respiration are particularly emphasized. The experience of the authors with the successful expression of a biologically functional protein, the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP), by recombinant S2 cells is presented in the topics covered. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Bertolde F.Z.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao Ciencia E Tecnologia | Almeida A.-A.F.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Pirovani C.P.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz

Soil flooding causes changes in gene transcription, synthesis and degradation of proteins and cell metabolism. The main objective of this study was to understand the biological events of Theobroma cacao during soil flooding-induced stress, using the analyses of gene expression and activity of key enzymes involved in fermentation, as well as the identification of differentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry in two contrasting genotypes for flooding tolerance (tolerant - TSA-792 and susceptible - TSH-774). Soil anoxia caused by flooding has led to changes in the expression pattern of genes associated with the biosynthesis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in leaves and roots of the two evaluated genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the enzyme activities of the two genotypes. Leaves and roots of the TSA-792 genotype showed higher ADH activity as compared to the TSH-774 genotype, whereas the activities of PDC and LDH have varied over the 96 h of soil flooding, being higher for TSA-792 genotype, at the initial stage, and TSH-774 genotype, at the final stage. Some of the identified proteins are those typical of the anaerobic metabolism-involved in glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation-and different proteins associated with photosynthesis, protein metabolism and oxidative stress. The ability to maintain glycolysis and induce fermentation was observed to play an important role in anoxia tolerance in cacao and may also serve to distinguish tolerant and susceptible genotypes in relation to this stressor. © 2014 Bertolde et al. Source

Cavalcante R.M.,Federal University of Ceara | Sousa F.W.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao Ciencia E Tecnologia | Sousa F.W.,Federal University of Ceara | Nascimento R.F.,Federal University of Ceara | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment

We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bulk precipitation in the Fortaleza metropolitan area, Ceará, Brazil, for the first time. Because little information is available concerning PAHs in tropical climatic regions, we assessed their spatial distribution and possible sources and the influence of urban activities on the depositional fluxes of PAHs in bulk precipitation. The concentrations of individual and total PAHs (σPAHs) in bulk precipitation ranged from undetectable to 133.9ng.L-1 and from 202.6 to 674.8ng.L-1, respectively. The plume of highest concentrations was most intense in a zone with heavy automobile traffic and favorable topography for the concentration of emitted pollutants. The depositional fluxes of PAHs in bulk precipitation calculated in this study (undetectable to 0.87μg.m-2.month-1) are 4 to 27 times smaller than those reported from tourist sites and industrial and urban areas in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnostic ratio analyses of PAH samples showed that the major source of emissions is gasoline exhaust, with a small percentage originating from diesel fuel. Contributions from coal and wood combustion were also found. Major economic activities appear to contribute to pollutant emissions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Almeida E.M.,Instituto Federal Of Educacao Ciencia E Tecnologia | Junior J.H.C.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Finger Z.,Federal University of Mato Grosso
Ciencia Florestal

The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantity of carbon in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.), with 0.5; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5 and 5.5 years of age, during one year. The teak evaluated belonged to the BRASTECA AGROFLORESTAL LTDA company, located in the municipality of Santo Antônio of Leverger, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The carbon stock for each age was assessed every 90 days by determining the amount of litter dry mass, organic carbon proportion in the soil, root density in the soil and the volume of the staff and crown in the three teak trees randomly selected for harvest. The assessment of the plant size, as height, diameter at chest height and crown projection, was carried out with twenty preserved plants at each age. The dry mass of the roots was determined from the relation between the soil volume and the density of roots of the three plants per age, by making four perforations per plant, with six samples for each, up to 0.90 m of depth. The carbon proportion in the soil and in the litter was obtained by age at each collection through laboratory analysis. The average carbon found per hectare was 122.5 t of C at 0.5 years; 104.3 t of C at 1.5 years; 180.8 t of C at 2.5 years; 303.1 t of C at 3.5 years and 322.3 t of C at 5.5 years, considering the numbers of plants per hectare at the different ages. Afterward, the average distribution of carbon per system component was found to be 90.8% in the soil, 5.04% to the aerial part, 3.04% in the roots and 1.21% in the litter. Source

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