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Froehlich A.,Instituto Federal Of Alagoas Ifal | Franco B.D.G.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Destro M.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Landgraf M.,University of Sao Paulo
Ciencia e Agrotecnologia | Year: 2015

Eggs and their products have been implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks due to contamination with Salmonella Enteritidis. Irradiation, as a food preservation technology, could minimize such contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of irradiation in powdered egg yolk, egg white, and whole egg samples spiked with Salmonella Enteritidis. The powdered egg samples were exposed to doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 kGy irradiation. Odors and tastes of raw and cooked non-inoculated, irradiated samples, and non-irradiated samples, were analyzed by a trained panel. A dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in slight to moderate changes in powdered egg yolk samples, compared to non-irradiated controls, while minimal differences were observed in powdered egg white samples. The dose of 3.5 kGy, when applied to samples of powdered egg white, resulted in taste and odor slightly stronger than the non-irradiated control. The maximum irradiation threshold before changes in flavor and odor occurred was 2.28 kGy, for powdered yolk and whole eggs, and 2.58 kGy, for powdered egg white. Those thresholds were enough to reduce S. Enteritidis to safe levels. © 2015, Federal University of Lavras. All rights reserved. Source

Moraes E.C.,Instituto Federal Of Alagoas Ifal | Moraes E.C.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Brito K.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Meira S.,Federal University of Pernambuco
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2012

Today new researches create a considerable amount of knowledge and scientific expertise related to health problem. There is a need to constantly update their professional knowledge base that enable them to face the diversity and "adversity" of the health process in the daily routine. Within this wealth of information is almost impossible to less experienced health professionals store all specific knowledge of their areas, and there is still the problem of difficulty of fast and easy access to knowledge in health, because this knowledge is mainly internalized in people minds and are not explicitly organized and documented. The use of ontologies is a proposal to represent knowledge in a more rich and detailed way and is a very interesting way to share and reuse formally represented knowledge. Ontology is a representation that can be understood by humans and processed by computers; it is useful to define the common and mathematically based vocabulary in which shared knowledge is represented. This paper describes the development of an ontology to represent part of the Brazilian knowledge in the Primary Health Care and creates a semantic web system to serve as a basis for health professionals better control their routine activities and serves as an information source for health professionals. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Costa Junior C.,University of Sao Paulo | Cerri C.E.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Dorich C.D.,University of New Hampshire | Maia S.M.F.,Instituto Federal Of Alagoas Ifal | And 2 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2013

We conducted an inventory to estimate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure in Brazil for the year of 2010. The aim was to determine (CH4) and (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure in Brazil using the IPCC United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach and present a framework that structures priority research for decreasing uncertainties and assessing mitigation scenarios. The analysis consisted of the use of specific farm-scale activity data applied to the 2006 (IPCC) guideline equations for animal manure management updated with specific parameters for Brazil conditions. Uncertainties were assessed by error-propagation technique. The results indicated that 376.6 GgCO2eq were emitted from the manure management of beef cattle feedlots in Brazil in 2010. Nitrous oxide accounted for 61 % of total emissions, out of which 69 % came from direct emissions. Uncertainties were high, comprising -30 to +80 %. Solid storage-heap and field application were the largest sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (81 % of total emissions) and held most of the variance in uncertainties. Although, due to limitations in the IPCC methodology for integrating GHG emissions at farm-scale, we could not account for emissions occurring from different lengths of time in each manure management compartment prior to field application. As a consequence, this GHG inventory lacks consistence. The use of more robust methodologies such as process-based models are recommended for improvements, however they are currently unavailable because there is a lack of key data for Brazil conditions for validating those models. Our literature revision shows that the most effective research for raising those data would track emissions from manure: generated from male Nellore (Bos Indicus) cattle fed for 90 days with a high-energy diet, removed only at the end of feeding period and held in heaps over 60 days before being applied to maize (Zea mays L.) cropping fields under clay soil. The proposed research and methodology approaches described in this work is required to establish a manure management emission assessment that will become more responsive to the changing practices on Brazilian beef cattle feedlots and, consequently, permitting implication of mitigation scenarios to be ascertained. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Maia S.M.F.,Instituto Federal Of Alagoas Ifal | Maia S.M.F.,Ohio State University | Carvalho J.L.N.,CTBE - Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory | Cerri C.E.P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 5 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2013

The Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado are among the principal agricultural frontiers of the world, and have attracted global attention because of their potential to be a source or sink of atmospheric CO2. However, accurately quantifying alterations in soil organic carbon (SOC) due to land-use changes remains to be a major challenge. Using a meta-analysis, our objective was to evaluate tillage effects on SOC stocks in Brazil's Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Two approaches: (1) the classical SOC annual change rate which provides only an arithmetic average of SOC changes, and (2) the rate of annual change adjusted from management factors derived according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SOC methodology, which allows a temporal dataset adjustment, were used. Regardless of approach, conservation technologies such as no-tillage (NT) and integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems were identified as viable options for SOC sequestration, increasing it between 9 and 16%. One exception was adoption of NT in the Amazon forest, where SOC decreased by 9% over 20 years. Comparing results of the two approaches showed substantial differences between them. For conversions from NT to ICL or from native vegetation to full tillage (FT), the IPCC-based approach produced SOC stock estimates that were 65 and 47% lower, respectively, than with the classical approach. The IPCC approach also identified modeling covariate effects and was influenced less by outliers, thus reducing the risk of under or overestimating soil management effects on SOC. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Souza E.G.F.,Instituto Federal Of Alagoas Ifal | Junior A.P.B.,UFERSA | Neto F.B.,UFERSA | Da Silveira L.M.,UFERSA | And 2 more authors.
Revista Caatinga | Year: 2015

The objective of this research was to evaluate the profitability of the production of rocket ferti-lized in different amounts of roostertree biomass and times of incorporation of this green manure into the soil, in two cultivation seasons (spring-summer and autumn), in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco state, Brazil. The exper-imental design was a randomized block with the treatments arranged in a factorial 4 x 4, with three replications, with the first factor consisting of amounts of roostertree biomass (5.4, 8.8, 12.2 and 15.6 t ha−1 on a dry basis), and the second factor by the incorporation times into the soil (0, 10, 20 and 30 days before sowing of the rock-et). Beyond the green mass yield and production costs, were determined the following economic indicators: gross income, net income, rate of return and profit margin. The optimal agronomic performance of the rocket was obtained into monetary terms. Spending on hand labor accounted for 69% of protuction costs. Due to the increase in the daily price of rural workers, the costs of preparation of the green manure were higher in autumn. The cultivation of the rocket under fertilization with roostertree was feasible from the economic perspective, regardless the amount of green manure, time of incorporation into the soil and cultivation season. The amount of 12.2 t ha−1 of roostertree biomass promoted greater profitability for the production of rocket. The incorpora-tion of green manure at 20 days before planting the crop was considered ideal to the economic viability of the activity. The net income of the rocket was higher in the autumn season. © 2015, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arid. All rights reserved. Source

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