Duque de Caxias, Brazil
Duque de Caxias, Brazil

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Ribeiro Junior J.C.,State University Londrina | Lima J.B.A.,Instituto Federal Do Maranhao | De Lemos K.L.,Instituto Federal Do Maranhao | Da Silva L.C.C.,Laboratorio Nacional Agropecuario | And 2 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2015

The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20) or small (26) according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day). The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05) lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country's northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently implemented among large producers with more advanced technology, which can improve the microbiological quality of raw milk, thus increasing the shelf life of pasteurized milk, and reducing problems in UHT milk as well as milk derivatives.

da Silva Santos N.P.,Federal University of Piauí | Sarmento J.L.R.,Federal University of Piauí | Carvalheiro R.,São Paulo State University | Campelo J.E.G.,Federal University of Piauí | And 4 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2016

The objective of this work was to evaluate strategies of simulated selection by optimum contribution for the genetic gain, with restriction on coancestry, for the weight trait of 84-day old Santa Ines sheep. The analyses were performed using a differential evolution algorithm, which optimized an objective function accounting for average coancestry of the candidate animals for reproduction and genetic merit. The optimal selection strategy indicated the use of 19 rams, which would result in an expected average gain of 1.1259 units of standard deviation, and coancestry equal to 0.0249 (strategy 5). Compared to the selection based only on breeding values, the optimum strategy reduced the coancestry by 12%, and the genetic gain by only 3%. The selection of sheep by the optimum contribution offers different levels of genetic gain, which are achievable from restrictions on the coancestry. Therefore, it is possible to minimize the coancestry, or restrict it to a predefined value, and maximize the genetic gain while using the optimum contribution.

This paper presents a comparative chemical and mineralogical study of birnessite (BIR-AZ) collected from Azul mine (Carajás Province, Brazil) and its synthetic analogous synthesized by sol-gel method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ICP-MS techniques. The results obtained confirm the presence of well-defined layer structures having monoclinic system, C2/m space group and the unit cell parameters are: BIR-AZ, a = 5.148 Å; b=2.843 Å, c=7.175 Å, and = 100.75°; K-OL-SG, a = 5.150 Å;β= 2.846 Å, c = 7.214 Å, and = 101.29°. The birnessite from Azul mine ores shows thermal stability up to 600 °C, whereas its synthetic analogous, above 900 °C. FT-Raman bands at 635, 570 and 410 cm-1 were identified and attributed to the Mn-O and K-O bond deformations in the birnessite structure. SEM images reveals that the manganese oxide mineral consist of platy packed particles of about 1 to 5 μm. By contrast, the morphology of the synthetic compound displays randomly arranged globules (<1 μm).

Cesar Nascimento Souza J.,Instituto Federal Do Maranhao | Leal-Diniz L.F.,Federal University of Maranhão | Saavedra O.R.,Federal University of Maranhão | Pessanha J.E.O.,Federal University of Maranhão
IEEE Latin America Transactions | Year: 2011

This paper presents a generalized approach for three-phase networks with ground return, from which Single wire earth return and conventional three-phase networks are obtained. The resulting model allows a more accuracte analyses based on ground resistivity, losses and high-impedance faults location. The modeling starts based on the Single wire earth return leading to the three-phase one. The general three-phase network with ground return model is presented and can be seen as three single wire earth return with different geografic routes. Analysis and discussions about the model related to ground resisistivity, feeders lenght, and distribution systems aplication are included. © 2011 IEEE.

Marques L.J.P.,Instituto Federal do Maranhao | Bianco S.,São Paulo State University | Filho A.B.C.,São Paulo State University | Bianco M.S.,São Paulo State University
Planta Daninha | Year: 2016

Eggplants are vegetables of great importance in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil, which are subject to interference from weeds. In order to collaborate with weed management in this vegetable, this study was carried out to determine the periods of weed interference in growing eggplants. The study was conducted in the Brazilian municipality of Jaboticabal, SP, at the Faculty of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, UNESP [Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (São Paulo State University)], in the period from February to July 2013. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 22 treatments, three replications divided in 11 periods of coexistence and weed control with eggplants: 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112, 126, 140 and 154 days after transplanting (DAT). In each treatment, a phytosociological study was carried out to identify the important species of weeds in eggplant crops. The main weeds were Eleusine indica, Nicandra physaloides, Portulaca oleracea and Cyperus rotundus due to their high relative importance. The interference of these weeds caused losses of up to 96% to the standard commercial fruit yield. The period before interference was 6 DAT and the total period of interference was 102 DAT. Therefore, it is concluded that after the initial six days after transplanting eggplants, the crop should be free of weeds within the next 96 days. © 2016, Sociedade Brasileira da Ciencia das Plantas Daninha. All Rights Reserved.

Dos Dourado E.C.S.,Instituto Federal do Maranhao | Nunes J.L.S.,Federal University of Maranhão | Piorski N.M.,Federal University of Maranhão
Cybium | Year: 2015

Acestrorhynchus falcatus (Bloch, 1794) and A. heterolepis (Cope, 1878) are two species frequently found in rivers from Baixada Maranhense, Maranhão State, northeastern of Brazil. The ecomorphological adaptations of these species were studied based on a collection of 445 specimens using morphometric tools. Seventeen landmarks were defined on the lateral side of the individuals and digitalized by the TPS Dig program. The data matrix was submitted to a Relative Warps Analysis (RWA) and a Canonical Variables Analysis (CVA) in order to identify the morphological patterns of each species. In addition, observations about the digestive tract of each species and diet comparison through the feeding ecology are provided. The main differences between A. falcatus and A. heterolepis, as indicated by the analysis, were associated with swimming agility and prey size. A. heterolepis has a shallow body, close to a fusiforme profile, deep caudal fin and low caudal peduncle. In contrast, A. falcatus possesses a shorter head and a lower caudal fin, better adapted to capture small preys and to live in mid-lower region of the water column. According to these traits, the two species probably avoid competition by catching prey of different sizes and using distinct strategies for this procedure. © SFI.

Silva E.O.,Federal University of Maranhão | Guarconi E.A.E.,Federal University of Maranhão | Ferreira A.W.C.,Federal University of Maranhão | De Oliveira M.S.,State University of Maranhão | De Oliveira Junior C.N.,Instituto Federal do Maranhao
Check List | Year: 2016

This study reports the first record of Passiflora pedata L. (Passifloraceae) from the state of Maranhão and from the Northeast Region of Brazil. The species was collected in the municipality of Buriticupu, which is located in a remnant of Amazon Forest in western Maranhão. This work adds to the knowledge of the flora of Maranhão and the distribution of P. pedata in the Brazilian Amazon. © 2016 Check List and Authors.

Figueira B.A.M.,Federal University of Pará | Angelica R.S.,Federal University of Pará | Costa M.L.,Federal University of Pará | Poellmann H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Mercury J.M.R.,Instituto Federal Do Maranhao
Ceramica | Year: 2013

The tunnel-structure manganese oxide minerals, hollandite (Apuí, Amazonas state, Brazil, area in prospection) and cryptomelane (Urucum, Mato do Sul Grosso state, Brazil) were isolated and characterized chemical, mineralogical, thermal and morphologically. The following techniques were employed: scanning electron microscopy-EDS, thermal analysis (DTA-TG), X-ray diffraction with continuous-heating. The empirical formula, were calculated on the basis 16 oxygen gave as (Ba0.18K0.12Ca 0.02Pb0.04)0.76 (Mn6.34Al 0.61Si0.25Fe0.24Ti 0.08)7.54O160.4H2O for hollandite and (K0.9Na0.04Ca0.03Sr0.04) 1.04 (Mn7.38Fe0.28Al 0.27Si0.08)8O16 for cryptomelane. The SEM investigations allowed the differentiation of the morphologies for hollandite and cryptomelane. The minerals were thermally treated among 100-900 °C and X-ray diffraction patterns in situ were collected. The analysis of X-ray diffractions experiments showed that a hollandite-crytomelane mineral has a thermal stability up to 900 °C.

The Gaussian curve is a mathematical model for the distribution, i.e, it is an idealized description, which offers a concise picture of the overall pattern of data. In conducting an analysis is interesting to use graphics to explore data, to assess the relationships between variables, summarize findings and facilitate the interpretation of statistical results. From the data collected by weighing matchsticks presented a simple example for teaching normal distribution in the discipline of Statistics Applied Chemistry from the description of data and inferences, providing principles and methodologies that assist in the observation and participation by students in the teaching-learning process. The data collected is a good example of the normal distribution of data. © Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Cintra C.L.D.,Av. Getulio Vargas 04 | Cintra C.L.D.,University of Washington | Paiva A.E.M.,Instituto Federal do Maranhao | Baldo J.B.,University of Washington
Ceramica | Year: 2014

In this study it is presented some relevant properties of light masonry mortars composed of cement, lime, washed river sand, vermiculite and recycled rubber aggregates from wasted tires. The properties of these mortars were comparatively evaluated to similar ones using the same components except recycled rubber aggregates. The properties in the fresh condition such as; consistency, mass density, mixing water, entrained air content, final set time and the properties in the hardened state such as apparent density, compressive strength and adherence tensile strength, were the comparison parameters. The results indicate that the properties in fresh condition of the rubber containing mortars were similar to those of mortars without rubber aggregates. On the other hand, in the hardened condition the axial compressive strength and adherence tensile strength of the rubber containing mortars were superior to those of mortars without rubber aggregates. The apparent densities of the rubber containing mortars were bigger than the ones without rubber aggregates, however, they still could be categorized as light weight mortars, fully satisfying the Brazilian standards requirements. These findings indicate that the vermiculite and rubber combination are a feasible, cheaper and sustainable alternative for light weight masonry mortars compared to the ones containing only vermiculite.

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