Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC

Ananindeua, Brazil

Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC

Ananindeua, Brazil
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Mendes F.D.C.C.D.S.,Federal University of Pará | de Almeida M.N.F.,Federal University of Pará | Felicio A.P.G.,Federal University of Pará | Fadel A.C.,Federal University of Pará | And 9 more authors.
BMC Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Background: To measure the impact of masticatory reduction on learning and memory, previous studies have produced experimental masticatory reduction by modified diet or molar removal. Here we induced spatial learning impairment in mice by reducing masticatory activity and then tested the effect of a combination of environmental enrichment and masticatory rehabilitation in recovering spatial learning at adulthood and in later life. For 6 months (6M) or 18 months (18M), we fed three groups of mice from postnatal day 21 respectively with a hard diet (HD) of pellets; pellets followed by a powdered, soft diet (HD/SD, divided into equal periods); or pellets followed by powder, followed by pellets again (HD/SD/HD, divided into equal periods). To mimic sedentary or active lifestyles, half of the animals from each group were raised from weaning in standard cages (impoverished environment; IE) and the other half in enriched cages (enriched environment; EE). To evaluate spatial learning, we used the Morris water maze.Results: IE6M-HD/SD mice showed lower learning rates compared with control (IE6M-HD) or masticatory rehabilitated (IE6MHD/SD/HD) animals. Similarly, EE-HD/SD mice independent of age showed lower performance than controls (EE-HD) or rehabilitated mice (EE-HD/SD/HD). However, combined rehabilitation and EE in aged mice improved learning rate up to control levels. Learning rates did not correlate with swim speed.Conclusions: Reduction in masticatory activity imposed on mice previously fed a hard diet (HD/SD) impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze. In adults, masticatory rehabilitation recovered spatial abilities in both sedentary and active mice, and rehabilitation of masticatory activity combined with EE recovered these losses in aged mice. © 2013 Mendes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Silva A.R.,Federal University of Pará | Queiroz M.F.A.,Federal University of Pará | Ishikawa E.A.Y.,Federal University of Pará | Silvestre M.D.P.S.A.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Xavier M.B.,Federal University of Pará
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial | Year: 2017

Introduction: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Mycobacterium leprae. The diagnosis is essentially clinical, based on symptoms, skin exam, peripheral nerves and epidemiological history. Laboratory tests are carried out to complement the result of clinical diagnosis, or even serving as a confirmatory method. Objective: To investigate the positivity and agreement between skin smear, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with synthetic antigen ND-O-BSA, ML Flow test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Mycobacterium leprae in new cases of leprosy. Methods: We conducted a case series study assessing a convenience sample of 39 new cases of leprosy and a control group of 18 household contacts in Belém (PA) and in Igarapé-Açu (PA) from March 2014 to September 2015. Results: The agreement between ELISA, ML Flow and PCR tests combinations showed slight to absent reproducibility (Kappa ≤ 0.24). The results showed greater sensitivity in PCR assay, with higher positivity in multibacillary cases. The ELISA test showed low positivity, even in multibacillary cases, resulting in no reaction to paucibacillary cases and household contacts. Conclusion: The high sensitivity of PCR decreases the agreement with other tests.

Kugelmeier T.,University of Sao Paulo | del Rio do Valle R.,University of Sao Paulo | de Barros Vaz Guimaraes M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Carneiro Muniz J.A.P.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

A better understanding of a species' reproductive physiology can help conservation programs to manage primates in the wild and develop assisted reproductive technologies in captivity. We investigated whether measurements of fecal progestin and estrogen metabolites obtained by a radioimmunoassay could be used to monitor the ovarian cycle of Alouatta caraya. We also compared the occurrence of vaginal bleeding with the hormone profiles. We collected fecal samples from 3 adult and 1 subadult captive female over 5 mo and performed vaginal cytology for the adults. The interval between fecal progestin surges in the adult females was 19.11 ± 2.14 d (n = 18 cycles). Fecal progestin concentrations remained at basal values for 9.83 ± 2.21 d (n = 18) and rose to elevated values for 9.47 ± 0.72 d (n = 19). The subadult female showed basal levels of fecal estrogen and progestin concentrations throughout the study, suggesting that our hormone measurements are valid to monitor the ovarian cycle. Bleeding periods coincided with basal levels of fecal estrogens and progestin at intervals of 19.8 ± 0.9 d and lasted for 4.1 ± 1.0 d. Although we obtained these data from only 3 individuals, the results indicate that this species likely has a menstrual-type ovarian cycle. These data provide the first endocrine profile for the Alouatta caraya ovarian cycle and are similar to results obtained for other howler species. This similarity is important for comparative studies of howlers, allowing for a better understanding of their reproductive physiology and contributing to a critical information base for managing Alouatta species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Siqueira J.A.M.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Bandeira R.D.S.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Oliveira D.D.S.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Dos Santos L.F.P.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Gabbay Y.B.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

A chronologically comprehensive 30-year study was conducted that involved children living in Belém, in the Amazon region of Northern Brazil, who participated in eight different studies from October 1982 to April 2011. The children were followed either in the community or in health units and hospitals in order to identify the norovirus genotypes involved in infections during this time. A total of 2,520 fecal specimens were obtained and subjected to RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing for regions A, B, C, D and P2 of the viral genome. An overall positivity of 16.9% (n = 426) was observed, and 49% of the positive samples were genotyped (208/426), evidencing the presence of several genotypes as follows: Polymerase gene (GI. P4, GII.Pa, GII.Pc, GII.Pe, GII.Pg, GII.Pj, GII.P3, GII.P4, GII.P6, GII.P7, GII.P8, GII.P12, GII.P13, GII.P14, GII.P21, GII.P22), and VP1 gene (GI.3, GI.7, GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.10, GII.12, GII.14, GII.17, GII.23). The GII.P4/GII.4 genotype determined by both open reading frames (ORFs) (partial polymerase and VP1 genes) was found for 83 samples, and analyses of the subdomain P2 region showed 10 different variants: CHDC (1970s), Tokyo (1980s), Bristol-1993, US-95/96, Kaiso-2003, Asia-2003, Hunter- 2004, Yerseke-2006a, Den Haag-2006b (subcluster "O") and New Orleans-2009. Recombination events were confirmed in 47.6% (n = 20) of the 42 samples with divergent genotyping by ORF1 and ORF2 and with probable different breakpoints within the viral genome. The evolutionary analyses estimated a rate of evolution of 1.02 × 10-2 and 9.05 × 10-3 subs./site/year using regions C and D from the VP1 gene, respectively. The present research shows the broad genetic diversity of the norovirus that infected children for 30 years in Belém. These findings contribute to our understanding of noroviruses molecular epidemiology and viral evolution and provide a baseline for vaccine design. © 2017 Siqueira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

de Sousa A.A.,Federal University of Pará | dos Reis R.R.,Federal University of Pará | de Lima C.M.,Federal University of Pará | de Oliveira M.A.,Federal University of Pará | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Many RNA virus CNS infections cause neurological disease. Because Piry virus has a limited human pathogenicity and exercise reduces activation of microglia in aged mice, possible influences of environment and aging on microglial morphology and behavior in mice sublethal encephalitis were investigated. Female albino Swiss mice were raised either in standard (S) or in enriched (EE) cages from age 2 to 6 months (young - Y), or from 2 to 16 months (aged - A). After behavioral tests, mice nostrils were instilled with Piry-virus-infected or with normal brain homogenates. Brain sections were immunolabeled for virus antigens or microglia at 8 days post-infection (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, and at 20 and 40 dpi, after additional behavioral testing. Young infected mice from standard (SYPy) and enriched (EYPy) groups showed similar transient impairment in burrowing activity and olfactory discrimination, whereas aged infected mice from both environments (EAPy, SAPy) showed permanent reduction in both tasks. The beneficial effects of an enriched environment were smaller in aged than in young mice. Six-hundred and forty microglial cells, 80 from each group were reconstructed. An unbiased, stereological sampling approach and multivariate statistical analysis were used to search for microglial morphological families. This procedure allowed distinguishing between microglial morphology of infected and control subjects. More severe virus-associated microglial changes were observed in young than in aged mice, and EYPy seem to recover microglial homeostatic morphology earlier than SYPy . Because Piry-virus encephalitis outcomes were more severe in aged mice, it is suggested that the reduced inflammatory response in those individuals may aggravate encephalitis outcomes. We measured the influences of aging and environment on behavioral and microglial changes in a mice model of virus sublethal encephalitis. We found that aged infected mice, showed permanent behavioral impairments and this was associated with smaller morphological changes in CA3 microglia. Young infected mice showed significant CA3 microglial changes with transitory or absent behavioral impairments. Reduced inflammatory response in immunosenescent individuals may aggravate encephalitis outcomes. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

de Sousa A.A.,Federal University of Pará | Reis R.,Federal University of Pará | Bento-Torres J.,Federal University of Pará | Trevia N.,Federal University of Pará | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

An enriched environment has previously been described as enhancing natural killer cell activity of recognizing and killing virally infected cells. However, the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral changes in relation to virus clearance and the neuropathology of encephalitis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that environmental enrichment leads to less CNS neuroinvasion and/or more rapid viral clearance in association with T cells without neuronal damage. Stereology-based estimates of activated microglia perineuronal nets and neurons in CA3 were correlated with behavioral changes in the Piry rhabdovirus model of encephalitis in the albino Swiss mouse. Two-month-old female mice maintained in impoverished (IE) or enriched environments (EE) for 3 months were behaviorally tested. After the tests, an equal volume of Piry virus (IEPy, EEPy)-infected or normal brain homogenates were nasally instilled. Eight days postinstillation (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, brains were fixed and processed to detect viral antigens, activated microglia, perineuronal nets, and T lymphocytes by immuno- or histochemical reactions. At 20 or 40 dpi, the remaining animals were behaviorally tested and processed for the same markers. In IEPy mice, burrowing activity decreased and recovered earlier (8-10 dpi) than open field (20-40 dpi) but remained unaltered in the EEPy group. EEPy mice presented higher T-cell infiltration, less CNS cell infection by the virus and/or faster virus clearance, less microgliosis, and less damage to the extracellular matrix than IEPy. In both EEPy and IEPy animals, CA3 neuronal number remained unaltered. The results suggest that an enriched environment promotes a more effective immune response to clear CNS virus and not at the cost of CNS damage. © 2011 de Sousa et al.

PubMed | Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC, Tiradentes University, University of Porto and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2016

This study reports on Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the fish species Lutjanus analis, Bagre marinus, Aspistor luniscutis and Lutjanus jocu, which were caught in Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil. The parasites formed oval plasmodia around the esophagus of L. analis, and elongated plasmodia inside the skeletal muscle of B. marinus, A. luniscutis and L. jocu. Host myoliquefaction was not observed in all the cases studied. The current study provides a morphological and morphometric description of each parasite as well as a comparison with all the species described worldwide. Lack of molecular data impaired specific identification of the parasites. The importance of these parasites is discussed and the need for further studies on infections in Brazilian fish is emphasized because of the high economic impact of some Kudoa species which cause liquefaction in hosts muscles and render these fish unsuitable for consumption.

PubMed | Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC, Federal University of Pará and Federal University of Maranhão
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2016

Given its toxigenic potential, Microcystis aeruginosa is an important bloom-forming cyanobacterium. Here, we present a draft genome and annotation of the strain CACIAM 03, which was isolated from an Amazonian freshwater environment.

PubMed | Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC and Federal University of Pará
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2014

Given the scarcity of data pertaining to whole-genome sequences of cyanobacterial strains isolated in Brazil, we hereby present the draft genome sequence of the Cyanobium sp. strain CACIAM 14, isolated in southeastern Amazonia.

Araujo B.H.S.,Federal University of São Paulo | Torres L.B.,Federal University of São Paulo | Torres L.B.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Cossa A.C.,Federal University of São Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010

Proechimys, a rodent living in the Amazon region, has shown resistance to developing chronic epilepsy when submitted to different experimental models. Recently, many studies have attributed a potent anticonvulsant action to cannabinoid receptor CB1. This study investigated the distribution and expression of the CB1 receptor in the hippocampal formation of Proechimys using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting techniques. Results were compared with values obtained from adult Wistar rats. The immunoreactivity for CB1 was evident throughout the Ammon's horn and in the hilar region of both animal species. However, the distribution of these receptors was higher in the stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the hilar region of Proechimys. In addition, higher expression of CB1 receptors was observed in the Proechimys hippocampus. These data could explain, at least partially, the natural resistance of this animal species to developing spontaneous seizures following epileptogenic precipitating events. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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