Fonseca F.,National Institute for Space Research |
Fonseca F.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz AmazOnia |
Freitas C.,National Institute for Space Research |
Dutra L.,National Institute for Space Research |
And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014
Schistosomiasis is a transmissible parasitic disease caused by the etiologic agent Schistosoma mansoni, whose intermediate hosts are snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State in Brazil using spatial disease information derived from the state transportation network of roads and rivers. The spatial information was incorporated in two ways: by introducing new variables that carry spatial neighborhood information and by using spatial regression models. Climate, socioeconomic and environmental variables were also used as co-variables to build models and use them to estimate a risk map for the whole state of Minas Gerais. The results show that the models constructed from the spatial regression produced a better fit, providing smaller root mean square error (RMSE) values. When no spatial information was used, the RMSE for the whole state of Minas Gerais reached 9.5%; with spatial regression, the RMSE reaches 8.8% (when the new variables are added to the model) and 8.5% (with the use of spatial regression). Variables representing vegetation, temperature, precipitation, topography, sanitation and human development indexes were important in explaining the spread of disease and identified certain conditions that are favorable for disease development. The use of spatial regression for the network of roads and rivers produced meaningful results for health management procedures and directing activities, enabling better detection of disease risk areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Kugelmeier T.,University of Sao Paulo |
del Rio do Valle R.,University of Sao Paulo |
de Barros Vaz Guimaraes M.A.,University of Sao Paulo |
Carneiro Muniz J.A.P.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011
A better understanding of a species' reproductive physiology can help conservation programs to manage primates in the wild and develop assisted reproductive technologies in captivity. We investigated whether measurements of fecal progestin and estrogen metabolites obtained by a radioimmunoassay could be used to monitor the ovarian cycle of Alouatta caraya. We also compared the occurrence of vaginal bleeding with the hormone profiles. We collected fecal samples from 3 adult and 1 subadult captive female over 5 mo and performed vaginal cytology for the adults. The interval between fecal progestin surges in the adult females was 19.11 ± 2.14 d (n = 18 cycles). Fecal progestin concentrations remained at basal values for 9.83 ± 2.21 d (n = 18) and rose to elevated values for 9.47 ± 0.72 d (n = 19). The subadult female showed basal levels of fecal estrogen and progestin concentrations throughout the study, suggesting that our hormone measurements are valid to monitor the ovarian cycle. Bleeding periods coincided with basal levels of fecal estrogens and progestin at intervals of 19.8 ± 0.9 d and lasted for 4.1 ± 1.0 d. Although we obtained these data from only 3 individuals, the results indicate that this species likely has a menstrual-type ovarian cycle. These data provide the first endocrine profile for the Alouatta caraya ovarian cycle and are similar to results obtained for other howler species. This similarity is important for comparative studies of howlers, allowing for a better understanding of their reproductive physiology and contributing to a critical information base for managing Alouatta species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
de Sousa A.A.,Federal University of Pará |
dos Reis R.R.,Federal University of Pará |
de Lima C.M.,Federal University of Pará |
de Oliveira M.A.,Federal University of Pará |
And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015
Many RNA virus CNS infections cause neurological disease. Because Piry virus has a limited human pathogenicity and exercise reduces activation of microglia in aged mice, possible influences of environment and aging on microglial morphology and behavior in mice sublethal encephalitis were investigated. Female albino Swiss mice were raised either in standard (S) or in enriched (EE) cages from age 2 to 6 months (young - Y), or from 2 to 16 months (aged - A). After behavioral tests, mice nostrils were instilled with Piry-virus-infected or with normal brain homogenates. Brain sections were immunolabeled for virus antigens or microglia at 8 days post-infection (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, and at 20 and 40 dpi, after additional behavioral testing. Young infected mice from standard (SYPy) and enriched (EYPy) groups showed similar transient impairment in burrowing activity and olfactory discrimination, whereas aged infected mice from both environments (EAPy, SAPy) showed permanent reduction in both tasks. The beneficial effects of an enriched environment were smaller in aged than in young mice. Six-hundred and forty microglial cells, 80 from each group were reconstructed. An unbiased, stereological sampling approach and multivariate statistical analysis were used to search for microglial morphological families. This procedure allowed distinguishing between microglial morphology of infected and control subjects. More severe virus-associated microglial changes were observed in young than in aged mice, and EYPy seem to recover microglial homeostatic morphology earlier than SYPy . Because Piry-virus encephalitis outcomes were more severe in aged mice, it is suggested that the reduced inflammatory response in those individuals may aggravate encephalitis outcomes. We measured the influences of aging and environment on behavioral and microglial changes in a mice model of virus sublethal encephalitis. We found that aged infected mice, showed permanent behavioral impairments and this was associated with smaller morphological changes in CA3 microglia. Young infected mice showed significant CA3 microglial changes with transitory or absent behavioral impairments. Reduced inflammatory response in immunosenescent individuals may aggravate encephalitis outcomes. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Impacts of urban life on water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks of the Brazilian Amazon [Impactos da vida urbana sobre a qualidade da água e comunidade de larvas de peixes em dois igarapés da Amazônia brasileira]
de Souza C.L.R.,Federal University of Pará |
da Costa V.B.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC |
Pinheiro Pereira S.F.,Federal University of Pará |
da Silva D.C.M.,Federal University of Pará |
Sarpedonti V.,Federal University of Pará
Revista Ambiente e Agua | Year: 2016
This study investigated the impact of anthropogenic activities in Belém City, Brazilian Amazon, by comparing water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks that flow into the Guamá River. One creek crossed a poor and crowded suburb of Belém while the other was located in an island section that was declared an Environmental Protected Area in 1997. Two sampling points were set in each creek and monitored over eight hours once every three months over a one–year period. Strong variations of water quality were registered all year long and at all tides in Belém’s mainland creek, along with, among other things, a very high number of thermotolerant coliforms. Few larvae were found. The water was considered unsuitable for human use and activities as well as for aquatic life. The island creek presented early signs of bacterial and nutrient contaminations during the rainy season, probably partly related to non-point source pollution. In both creeks, larvae communities were almost exclusively composed of clupeiforms. All larval development stages were encountered. Higher densities and proportion of newly hatched larvae were registered during the dry season and associated with the presence of nitrate. The results of the study show that adequate sewage and drainage systems must be developed in the city and suggest that it would be useful to conduct an integrated ambient monitoring study in Combú Creek. © 2016, Institute for Environmental Research in Hydrographic Basins (IPABHi). All rights reserved.
de Sousa A.A.,Federal University of Pará |
Reis R.,Federal University of Pará |
Bento-Torres J.,Federal University of Pará |
Trevia N.,Federal University of Pará |
And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
An enriched environment has previously been described as enhancing natural killer cell activity of recognizing and killing virally infected cells. However, the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral changes in relation to virus clearance and the neuropathology of encephalitis have not been studied in detail. We tested the hypothesis that environmental enrichment leads to less CNS neuroinvasion and/or more rapid viral clearance in association with T cells without neuronal damage. Stereology-based estimates of activated microglia perineuronal nets and neurons in CA3 were correlated with behavioral changes in the Piry rhabdovirus model of encephalitis in the albino Swiss mouse. Two-month-old female mice maintained in impoverished (IE) or enriched environments (EE) for 3 months were behaviorally tested. After the tests, an equal volume of Piry virus (IEPy, EEPy)-infected or normal brain homogenates were nasally instilled. Eight days postinstillation (dpi), when behavioral changes became apparent, brains were fixed and processed to detect viral antigens, activated microglia, perineuronal nets, and T lymphocytes by immuno- or histochemical reactions. At 20 or 40 dpi, the remaining animals were behaviorally tested and processed for the same markers. In IEPy mice, burrowing activity decreased and recovered earlier (8-10 dpi) than open field (20-40 dpi) but remained unaltered in the EEPy group. EEPy mice presented higher T-cell infiltration, less CNS cell infection by the virus and/or faster virus clearance, less microgliosis, and less damage to the extracellular matrix than IEPy. In both EEPy and IEPy animals, CA3 neuronal number remained unaltered. The results suggest that an enriched environment promotes a more effective immune response to clear CNS virus and not at the cost of CNS damage. © 2011 de Sousa et al.
PubMed | Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC, Tiradentes University, University of Porto and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2016
This study reports on Kudoa spp. (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) from the fish species Lutjanus analis, Bagre marinus, Aspistor luniscutis and Lutjanus jocu, which were caught in Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil. The parasites formed oval plasmodia around the esophagus of L. analis, and elongated plasmodia inside the skeletal muscle of B. marinus, A. luniscutis and L. jocu. Host myoliquefaction was not observed in all the cases studied. The current study provides a morphological and morphometric description of each parasite as well as a comparison with all the species described worldwide. Lack of molecular data impaired specific identification of the parasites. The importance of these parasites is discussed and the need for further studies on infections in Brazilian fish is emphasized because of the high economic impact of some Kudoa species which cause liquefaction in hosts muscles and render these fish unsuitable for consumption.
PubMed | Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC, Federal University of Pará and Federal University of Maranhão
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2016
Given its toxigenic potential, Microcystis aeruginosa is an important bloom-forming cyanobacterium. Here, we present a draft genome and annotation of the strain CACIAM 03, which was isolated from an Amazonian freshwater environment.
PubMed | Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC and Federal University of Pará
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2014
Given the scarcity of data pertaining to whole-genome sequences of cyanobacterial strains isolated in Brazil, we hereby present the draft genome sequence of the Cyanobium sp. strain CACIAM 14, isolated in southeastern Amazonia.
Araujo B.H.S.,Federal University of São Paulo |
Torres L.B.,Federal University of São Paulo |
Torres L.B.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC |
Cossa A.C.,Federal University of São Paulo |
And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010
Proechimys, a rodent living in the Amazon region, has shown resistance to developing chronic epilepsy when submitted to different experimental models. Recently, many studies have attributed a potent anticonvulsant action to cannabinoid receptor CB1. This study investigated the distribution and expression of the CB1 receptor in the hippocampal formation of Proechimys using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting techniques. Results were compared with values obtained from adult Wistar rats. The immunoreactivity for CB1 was evident throughout the Ammon's horn and in the hilar region of both animal species. However, the distribution of these receptors was higher in the stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the hilar region of Proechimys. In addition, higher expression of CB1 receptors was observed in the Proechimys hippocampus. These data could explain, at least partially, the natural resistance of this animal species to developing spontaneous seizures following epileptogenic precipitating events. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
da Silva M.R.M.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia |
Lima A.R.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia |
Lacreta Jr. A.C.C.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia |
Ishizaki M.N.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia |
And 3 more authors.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2011
The Saimiri sciureus is a non human primate that exists in the amazon region, which is not in the list of endangered animals according to IBAMA. So, this research systemized the collateral branches visceral of the abdominal aorta of these animals. It was used six animals, three males and three females, which had the circulatory system filled with latex Neoprene added of radiographic contrast. The results showed that the abdominal aorta ventrally emitted a collateral visceral branch called celiac artery, which originates three branches: left gastric, hepatic and lienal arteries. The branches of the celiac artery promoted the irrigation of the stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas and spleen. Then the abdominal aorta emitted the cranial mesenteric artery, which was of a larger size than the celiac artery and was caudally juxtaposed. The cranial mesenteric artery supply branches that irrigate the final portion of the duodenum, pancreas, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon. Abdominal aorta emitted laterally the right and left kidney arteries. The left adrenal artery as a collateral branch of the celiac artery and the right adrenal artery has been originated in the right renal artery. The mesenteric caudal artery was emitted from the ventral surface of the abdominal aorta, below the kidney arteries. In L6, abdominal aorta has two derivations to origin the right and left external iliac arteries and these had given origin to the internal iliac and femoral artery right and left. The testicular or ovary arteries were emitted in internal iliac arteries. Of the abdominal aorta led to origin the sacral median artery and in this sequence there is the caudal median artery. The study of this specie is very important to generate knowledge about non human primates existing in our country. It can be said that Saimiri sciureus is an important biological model for development of biomedical researches.