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Ananindeua, Brazil

Guimaraes R.J.P.S.,National Institute for Space Research | Guimaraes R.J.P.S.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Freitas C.C.,National Institute for Space Research | Dutra L.V.,National Institute for Space Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2012

Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission. Copyright © 2012 Ricardo J. P. S. Guimares et al. Source


Araujo B.H.S.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Torres L.B.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Torres L.B.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Cossa A.C.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010

Proechimys, a rodent living in the Amazon region, has shown resistance to developing chronic epilepsy when submitted to different experimental models. Recently, many studies have attributed a potent anticonvulsant action to cannabinoid receptor CB1. This study investigated the distribution and expression of the CB1 receptor in the hippocampal formation of Proechimys using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting techniques. Results were compared with values obtained from adult Wistar rats. The immunoreactivity for CB1 was evident throughout the Ammon's horn and in the hilar region of both animal species. However, the distribution of these receptors was higher in the stratum lucidum of CA3 and in the hilar region of Proechimys. In addition, higher expression of CB1 receptors was observed in the Proechimys hippocampus. These data could explain, at least partially, the natural resistance of this animal species to developing spontaneous seizures following epileptogenic precipitating events. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


de Souza C.L.R.,Federal University of Para | da Costa V.B.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | Pinheiro Pereira S.F.,Federal University of Para | da Silva D.C.M.,Federal University of Para | Sarpedonti V.,Federal University of Para
Revista Ambiente e Agua | Year: 2016

This study investigated the impact of anthropogenic activities in Belém City, Brazilian Amazon, by comparing water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks that flow into the Guamá River. One creek crossed a poor and crowded suburb of Belém while the other was located in an island section that was declared an Environmental Protected Area in 1997. Two sampling points were set in each creek and monitored over eight hours once every three months over a one–year period. Strong variations of water quality were registered all year long and at all tides in Belém’s mainland creek, along with, among other things, a very high number of thermotolerant coliforms. Few larvae were found. The water was considered unsuitable for human use and activities as well as for aquatic life. The island creek presented early signs of bacterial and nutrient contaminations during the rainy season, probably partly related to non-point source pollution. In both creeks, larvae communities were almost exclusively composed of clupeiforms. All larval development stages were encountered. Higher densities and proportion of newly hatched larvae were registered during the dry season and associated with the presence of nitrate. The results of the study show that adequate sewage and drainage systems must be developed in the city and suggest that it would be useful to conduct an integrated ambient monitoring study in Combú Creek. © 2016, Institute for Environmental Research in Hydrographic Basins (IPABHi). All rights reserved. Source


Fonseca F.,National Institute for Space Research | Fonseca F.,Instituto Leonidas e Maria Deane Fiocruz Amazonia | Freitas C.,National Institute for Space Research | Dutra L.,National Institute for Space Research | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Schistosomiasis is a transmissible parasitic disease caused by the etiologic agent Schistosoma mansoni, whose intermediate hosts are snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State in Brazil using spatial disease information derived from the state transportation network of roads and rivers. The spatial information was incorporated in two ways: by introducing new variables that carry spatial neighborhood information and by using spatial regression models. Climate, socioeconomic and environmental variables were also used as co-variables to build models and use them to estimate a risk map for the whole state of Minas Gerais. The results show that the models constructed from the spatial regression produced a better fit, providing smaller root mean square error (RMSE) values. When no spatial information was used, the RMSE for the whole state of Minas Gerais reached 9.5%; with spatial regression, the RMSE reaches 8.8% (when the new variables are added to the model) and 8.5% (with the use of spatial regression). Variables representing vegetation, temperature, precipitation, topography, sanitation and human development indexes were important in explaining the spread of disease and identified certain conditions that are favorable for disease development. The use of spatial regression for the network of roads and rivers produced meaningful results for health management procedures and directing activities, enabling better detection of disease risk areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kugelmeier T.,University of Sao Paulo | del Rio do Valle R.,University of Sao Paulo | de Barros Vaz Guimaraes M.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Carneiro Muniz J.A.P.,Instituto Evandro Chagas IEC | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

A better understanding of a species' reproductive physiology can help conservation programs to manage primates in the wild and develop assisted reproductive technologies in captivity. We investigated whether measurements of fecal progestin and estrogen metabolites obtained by a radioimmunoassay could be used to monitor the ovarian cycle of Alouatta caraya. We also compared the occurrence of vaginal bleeding with the hormone profiles. We collected fecal samples from 3 adult and 1 subadult captive female over 5 mo and performed vaginal cytology for the adults. The interval between fecal progestin surges in the adult females was 19.11 ± 2.14 d (n = 18 cycles). Fecal progestin concentrations remained at basal values for 9.83 ± 2.21 d (n = 18) and rose to elevated values for 9.47 ± 0.72 d (n = 19). The subadult female showed basal levels of fecal estrogen and progestin concentrations throughout the study, suggesting that our hormone measurements are valid to monitor the ovarian cycle. Bleeding periods coincided with basal levels of fecal estrogens and progestin at intervals of 19.8 ± 0.9 d and lasted for 4.1 ± 1.0 d. Although we obtained these data from only 3 individuals, the results indicate that this species likely has a menstrual-type ovarian cycle. These data provide the first endocrine profile for the Alouatta caraya ovarian cycle and are similar to results obtained for other howler species. This similarity is important for comparative studies of howlers, allowing for a better understanding of their reproductive physiology and contributing to a critical information base for managing Alouatta species. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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