Instituto Dos Museus e da Conservacao

Lisbon, Portugal

Instituto Dos Museus e da Conservacao

Lisbon, Portugal

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Gil M.,University of Évora | Gil M.,University of Lisbon | Carvalho M.L.,University of Lisbon | Longelin S.,University of Lisbon | And 5 more authors.
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2011

Samples of blue wall paint layers from selected 15th to 18th century religious mural paintings from southern Portugal (Alentejo) have been analyzed using a multi-analytical methodology involving the combination of in situ visible spectro-colorimetry with microanalytical techniques such as optical and scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In situ analyses and micro-sampling were carried out in nine different churches, many in an advanced state of deterioration. The objectives of this study were: (a) to identify and compare the pigments that were used in the blue paint layers across the Alentejo region and through time by analysis of the elemental and mineralogical composition and pictorial techniques, and (b) to correlate the data between the actual color of the paint layer and the state of conservation of the pigments. For the paintings dated from the 16th century forward, the results show a generalized use of smalt blue. To a lesser extent, natural azurite was used despite the geological richness of the region in copper and pyrite ores. In only one painting was an optical blue made of carbon black and lime found. The pigments, pure or mixed with red and yellow ochres, were coarsely ground and used in different concentrations to create three-dimensional effects. These parameters as well as the presence of iron oxides in underlayer paints influence the colorimetric coordinates in the more transparent smalt blue paint layers. The state of conservation of the pigments plays an important role in the alteration of the paint color. A clear example of this is the fading of the smalt blue in several paintings due to lixiviation processes. © 2011 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.


Manso M.,University of Lisbon | Gac A.L.,University of Lisbon | Gac A.L.,New University of Lisbon | Longelin S.,University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

The foral charter attributed by D. Manuel I of Portugal, in 1514, to the village of Sintra was studied using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, Raman and Infrared micro-spectroscopies. A complete characterization of the pictorial materials used in the production of this masterpiece allowed the identification of iron gall inks used in the written text; pigments such as malachite, azurite, lead white, cinnabar, yellow ochre, gold, silver and carbon black in the illuminations and letterings; filler and binder used in the production of coloring materials and inks. Gum and calcium carbonate were the most recurrent binder and filler identified in this study. Silvering and gilding were mostly obtained by applying ground silver and gold on parchment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Manso M.,University of Lisbon | Reis M.A.,University of Lisbon | Reis M.A.,Technological and Nuclear Institute of Portugal | Candeias J.,Instituto Dos Museus e da Conservacao | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2013

We have used a portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer based on a silicon drift detector for elemental quantification of a historical paper document. Quantitative calculations were carried out using the WinAxil software package. In order to minimize matrix effects and to accurately reflect the conditions under which quantification is usually performed, the fundamental parameters package with a known paper samples was used. Reference values for paper samples were obtained through a set of a particle induced X-ray emission techniques. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Le Gac A.,New University of Lisbon | Le Gac A.,University of Lisbon | Estrompa R.,New University of Lisbon | Frade J.C.,Instituto Dos Museus e da Conservacao | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2012

This paper surveys a detailed characterization of a prestigious harpsichord brought into fashion in 1782 by Pascal Taskin. The implemented analytical methodology required the use of in situ Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) for elemental analysis of the color palette, optical and SEM imaging (SE and BSE modes) for the layered structure identification, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for elemental composition of the inorganic compounds, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for some binders and THM-GC/MS as well for resinous layers identification. By cross-checking these data with those obtained by digital radiography, it was concluded that a true ravalement of the harpsichord was in fact undertaken and that, among more than five interventions applied to the instrument until the present day, the third one may correspond to the one performed at Pascal Taskin's time. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.


Pessanha S.,University of Lisbon | Carvalho M.L.,University of Lisbon | Cabaco M.I.,University of Lisbon | Valadas S.,Instituto Dos Museus e da Conservacao | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

Two pairs of hand-painted Japanese folding screens were analyzed by Raman,energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy, in order to characterize the materials used in theirproduction. Japanese folding screens, called byobu, are one of the oldest andmost highly refined forms of Japanese art, where paper and silk were used asmaterials for the artists to paint on. The two pairs of folding screens studiedin this work also exhibit a golden background to create a luminous effect. Thesescreens depict some of the Portuguese who arrived to Japan during the 16thcentury, initiating active commercial and cultural exchange between Japan andthe West, called the Nanban Trade. Nowadays, only about 60 examples of thisNamban genre remain, so the study of these two pairs is of utmost importance tothe knowledge of this precious craft. The materials identified, such as gold,silver, malachite, azurite, vermillion, red lead, red madder, yellow ochre,white oyster shell, and carbon black, are part of the traditional Japanesepalette. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | George Washington University, Instituto dos Museus e da Conservacao, Vanderbilt University and University College London
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science advances | Year: 2016

Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).


PubMed | Instituto dos Museus e da Conservacao
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry | Year: 2010

Oriental lacquers have been used as coating materials for thousands of years for wooden, ceramics, leather and metal objects. Lacquers are natural polymers obtained from three species growing in different regions of Asia: Rhus vernicifera (China, Japan and Korea); Rhus succedanea (Vietnam and Taiwan); and Melanorrhoea usitate (Myanmar and Thailand). The identification of lacquer films is important for conservation and restoration purposes, as well as for art history studies because it may help in determining the origin of the lacquered objects. In this work, pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a filament-type pyrolyser was successfully applied to the characterization of oriental lacquers. A method to identify the three kinds of lacquer was developed and applied to the study of two lacquered shields imported from Asia in the sixteenth century. The materials that constitute the shields were also examined by Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and details of the lacquering technique are reported.

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