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Moreira M.A.,Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon | Moreira M.A.,Instituto Dom Luis | Geoffroy L.,CNRS Oceanic Domains Laboratory | Pozzi J.P.,CNRS ENS Geology Laboratory
Journal of Geophysical Research B: Solid Earth | Year: 2015

The localization of magma melting areas at the lithosphere bottom in extensional volcanic domains is poorly understood. Large polygenetic volcanoes of long duration and their associated magma chambers suggest that melting at depth may be focused at specific points within the mantle. To validate the hypothesis that the magma feeding a mafic crust, comes from permanent localized crustal reservoirs, it is necessary to map the fossilized magma flow within the crustal planar intrusions. Using the AMS, we obtain magmatic flow vectors from 34 alkaline basaltic dykes from São Jorge, São Miguel and Santa Maria islands in the Azores Archipelago, a hot-spot related triple junction. The dykes contain titanomagnetite showing a wide spectrum of solid solution ranging from Ti-rich to Ti-poor compositions with vestiges of maghemitization. Most of the dykes exhibit a normal magnetic fabric. The orientation of the magnetic lineation k1 axis is more variable than that of the k3 axis, which is generally well grouped. The dykes of São Jorge and São Miguel show a predominance of subhorizontal magmatic flows. In Santa Maria the deduced flow pattern is less systematic changing from subhorizontal in the southern part of the island to oblique in north. These results suggest that the ascent of magma beneath the islands of Azores is predominantly over localized melting sources and then collected within shallow magma chambers. According to this concept, dykes in the upper levels of the crust propagate laterally away from these magma chambers thus feeding the lava flows observed at the surface. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source


Mogo S.,University of Beira Interior | Mogo S.,University of Valladolid | Mogo S.,Instituto Dom Luis | Cachorro V.,University of Valladolid | de Frutos A.,University of Valladolid
Optica Pura y Aplicada | Year: 2011

Since October 2009 an aerosol measurement data set was started at Covilhã, a small town located in the region of Beira Interior (Portugal) in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. Until July 2010, the ambient light-absorption coefficient, σ α (470 nm), σ α (522 nm) and σ α (660 nm), presented a daily mean value of 14.2Mm -1 (StD=8.6Mm -1), 12.1Mm -1 (StD=7.3Mm -1) and 9.6Mm -1 (StD=5.7Mm -1), respectively. Monthly variations and daily cycle are presented in this work. © Sociedad Española de Óptica. Source


Mogo S.,University of Valladolid | Mogo S.,University of Beira Interior | Mogo S.,Instituto Dom Luis | Cachorro V.E.,University of Valladolid | de Frutos A.M.,University of Valladolid
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

In this work, a novel technique is used to estimate the aerosol complex index of refraction of in situ collected samples. Samples of atmospheric particulate matter were collected in El Arenosillo, southern Spain, on polycarbonate filters during summer 2004 as part of an aerosol characterization campaign. These samples were analyzed for the volumetric absorption coefficient in the 320-800 nm spectral region and an estimation of the effective imaginary refractive index was made. The values of the imaginary part of the complex refractive index ranged between 0.0009-0.0215 at 800 nm and 0.0015-0.0114 at 320 nm. Little dependence on the wavelength was observed. Several intense and long lasting desert outbreaks were registered during the campaign and the complex refractive index almost doubles its value during these dust events. Finally, we present a comparison of data obtained in situ with columnar data obtained from the AERONET network. A correlation factor of 0.64 was obtained between both data, which gives an idea of how accurately the in situ ground data represent the total column. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mogo S.,University of Valladolid | Mogo S.,University of Beira Interior | Mogo S.,Instituto Dom Luis | Cachorro V.E.,University of Valladolid | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

In situ measurements of aerosol optical properties and particle size distributions were made in the summer of 2008 at the ALOMAR station facility (69°16' N, 16°00' E), located in a rural site in the north of the island of Andøya (Vesterälen archipelago), approximately 300 km north of the Arctic Circle. The extended three-month campaign was part of the POLARCAT Project (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport) of the International Polar Year (IPY-2007-2008). Our goal was to characterize the aerosols of this sub-Arctic area, which are frequently transported to the Arctic region. Data from 13 June to 26 August 2008 were available and the statistical data for all instruments were calculated based on the hourly averages. The overall data coverage was approximately 72%. The hourly mean values of the light-scattering coefficient, σs, and the light-absorption coefficient, σa, at 550 nm were 5.41 Mm-1 (StD Combining double low line 3.55 Mm-1) and 0.40 Mm-1 (StD Combining double low line 0.27 Mm-1), respectively. The scattering/absorption Ångström exponents, αs,a, were used in a detailed analysis of the variations of the spectral shape of σs,a. While αs indicates the presence of two particle sizes corresponding to two types of aerosols, αa indicates only one type of absorbing aerosol particle. αa values greater than 1 were not observed. The single-scattering albedo, ω0, ranged from 0.62 to 0.99 (mean Combining double low line 0.91, StD Combining double low line 0.05), and the relationships between this parameter and the absorption/scattering coefficients and the Ångström exponents are presented. Any absorption value may lead to the lowest values of ω0, whereas only the lowest scattering values were observed in the lowest range of ω0. For a given absorption value, lower ω0 were observed for smaller αs. The submicrometer, micrometer and total concentrations of the particles presented hourly mean values of 1277 cm-3 (StD Combining double low line 1563 cm-3), 1 cm -3 (StD Combining double low line 1 cm-3) and 2463 cm -3 (StD Combining double low line 4251 cm-3), respectively, and the modal correlations were also investigated. The optical and microphysical parameters, as well as their relationship with each other, are reported. σs correlated strongly with the number concentration of accumulation mode particles and more strongly with the micrometer fraction of particles, but weak correlations were observed for the Aitken and nucleation modes. The origins and pathways of the air masses were examined, and based on sector classification, a relationship between the air mass origin, the optical parameters and the size distributions was established. The low values of the optical and microphysical parameters indicate that the predominant regional aerosol is mostly clean and the shape of the size distribution is characterized by bimodal median size distributions. However, the relationships between the air mass origins and the parameters studied allow us to describe two characteristic situations: the one of the northern and western air masses, which were predominantly composed of marine aerosols and presented the lowest optical and microphysical values observed, indicating predominantly non-absorbent and coarser particles; and the one of the eastern and southern air masses, in which continental aerosols were predominant and exhibited higher values for all parameters, indicating the presence of smaller absorbent particles. The north-northeastern air masses presented the strongest Aitken mode, indicating more recently formed particles, and the southeastern air masses presented the strongest accumulation mode (however, the southeastern air masses were the least common, accounting for only 3% of occurrences). © 2012 Author(s). Source


Carvalho J.,National Laboratory of Energy and Geology | Matias H.,Repsol | Matias H.,Instituto Dom Luis | Rabeh T.,National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics | And 4 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2012

The Algarve is located a few hundred kilometres north of the crossing of the E-W Eurasia-Africa plate boundary and is characterised by a moderate seismicity, with some important historical and instrumental earthquakes causing loss of lives and significant material damages. The area is affected not only by plate boundary generated earthquakes but also by local events capable of generating moderate to large earthquakes. The assessment of onshore local sources and its connections with the plate border is therefore of vital importance for an evaluation of the regional seismic hazard. This paper discusses the application of geophysical data to study a large fault zone which is the offshore prolonging of the Carcavai fault zone (CF), an onshore outcropping structure more than 20. km long which is seen to deform sediments of Plio-Quaternary age. Offshore and onshore aeromagnetic data, offshore gravimetric and seismic reflection data shows the existence of a long (over 200. km) WSW-ENE trending fault zone affecting the Palaeozoic basement with a normal geometry which is probably segmented by NNW-SSE to N-S faults. Seismic data shows that this fault zone has been reactivated as a left-lateral strike-slip fault and inverted in the Cenozoic with the upthrust of the northwestern block, in agreement with the onshore CF characteristics. Recent work carried out onshore and offshore near the coastline that shows deformation of Plio-Quaternary sediments suggests that this is an active fault. Some of the faults segments have instrumental seismicity associated. Though faults very rarely rupture along its entire length, several fault segments have a length of about 30. km and may produce an earthquake of magnitude about7. The proximity of the onshore segment to the city of Faro and of the offshore segments to the main population centres of the Algarve makes it a serious threat to the Algarve. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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