Instituto do Mar

Aver-o-Mar, Portugal

Instituto do Mar

Aver-o-Mar, Portugal

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Amado-Filho G.M.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro | Moura R.L.,Sage | Pereira-Filho G.H.,Instituto do Mar | Bahia R.G.,Institute Pesquisas Jardim Botanico Do Rio Of Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Marine Biodiversity | Year: 2016

Rocas Atoll is the only atoll in the South Atlantic and one of the smallest atolls in the world, and is mainly built by coralline algae. Even being unique in the world, reefs from its mesophotic zone (i.e., >30 m depth) have never been described. For the first time, we surveyed the bottom features of Rocas Atoll mesophotic zone by using side scan sonar, a remotely operated vehicle and TRIMIX diving. Rhodolith beds were the main habitat observed, composed mainly by crustose coralline algae, and presenting different patterns of bed structure. In deeper areas (60–80 m), most rhodoliths were coalesced in patches of ∼1 m2, while in the shallow areas (20–50 m), the more typical pattern of free-living rhodoliths predominated. Depths between 50 and 65 m were marked as transitional zones in which a step-shaped carbonate reefs were discovered. In addition to describing the rhodolith beds and the formation of carbonate reefs by the coalescence of rhodoliths, we highlight the importance of oceanic areas such as the one investigated here. They are excellent models for testing and understanding the influence of rhodolith beds in supporting the marine biodiversity and in promoting demographic connectivity between shallow and mesophotic reefs. © 2016 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Piroddi C.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Teixeira H.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Lynam C.P.,CEFAS - Center for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science | Smith C.,Hellenic Center for Marine Research | And 19 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2015

The European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) seeks to achieve, for all European seas, "Good Environmental Status" (GEnS), by 2020. Ecological models are currently one of the strongest approaches used to predicting and understanding the consequences of anthropogenic and climate-driven changes in the natural environment. We assess the most commonly used capabilities of the modelling community to provide information about indicators outlined in the MSFD, particularly on biodiversity, food webs, non-indigenous species and seafloor integrity descriptors. We built a catalogue of models and their derived indicators to assess which models were able to demonstrate: (1) the linkages between indicators and ecosystem structure and function and (2) the impact of pressures on ecosystem state through indicators. Our survey identified 44 ecological models being implemented in Europe, with a high prevalence of those that focus on links between hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry, followed by end-to-end, species distribution/habitat suitability, bio-optical (remote sensing) and multispecies models. Approximately 200 indicators could be derived from these models, the majority of which were biomass and physical/hydrological/chemical indicators. Biodiversity and food webs descriptors, with ∼49% and ∼43% respectively, were better addressed in the reviewed modelling approaches than the non-indigenous species (0.3%) and sea floor integrity (∼8%) descriptors. Out of 12 criteria and 21 MSFD indicators relevant to the abovementioned descriptors, currently only three indicators were not addressed by the 44 models reviewed. Modelling approaches showed also the potential to inform on the complex, integrative ecosystem dimensions while addressing ecosystem fundamental properties, such as interactions between structural components and ecosystems services provided, despite the fact that they are not part of the MSFD indicators set. The cataloguing of models and their derived indicators presented in this study, aim at helping the planning and integration of policies like the MSFD which require the assessment of all European Seas in relation to their ecosystem status and pressures associated and the establishment of environmental targets (through the use of indicators) to achieve GEnS by 2020. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Kalwa J.,Atlas Elektronik GmbH | Pascoal A.,University of Lisbon | Ridao P.,University of Girona | Birk A.,Jacobs University Bremen | And 5 more authors.
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2015

The MORPH project (FP 7, 2012-2016) advances a novel concept of an underwater robotic system composed of a number of spatially separated mobile robot-modules, carrying complementary resources. Instead of being physically coupled, the modules are connected via communication links that allow a limited flow of information among them. Without rigid links, the so called Morph Supra-Vehicle can reconfigure itself and adapt in response to the shape of the terrain, including walls with negative slope. The MORPH concept requires new concepts in a number of technological fields. Examples are adaptive sensor placement for perception and navigation or environmental modeling in complex environments. As the project enters its final year the basic developments have been achieved. It is still a huge effort to create a system out of components which can be perceived as a supra-vehicle. This paper focuses on a presentation of the current state. © 2015, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ferreira M.A.,Instituto do Mar | Soares L.,New University of Lisbon | Andrade F.,University of Lisbon
Journal of Coastal Conservation | Year: 2012

The Coastwatch (CW) project is aimed at monitoring the coastline with the involvement of volunteers. Between 2003 and 2007 a beach profiling method was informally proposed to CW participants in Portugal as an extra activity to include in the surveys. Beach profiling contributes to a better understanding of coastal processes by providing quantitative information on the spatial/temporal evolution of beaches, which is crucial for coastal management. The profiling method proposed to the CW project is based on the physical principle of communicating vessels, and only requires a simple and inexpensive homemade "profiler". The simplicity of putting together and using the profiler, added to the arithmetic straightforwardness of data analysis, makes this method adequate for several kinds of users and for most levels of education. Eight workshops were held that included a classroom explanation of the method, the construction of a profiler, the actual profiling of a beach, and a final classroom session of data processing and graphing. About 140 participants received such training, and several among them independently undertook beach profiling. Surveyed participants found the workshop and the beach profiling method interesting and useful, and considered it a valuable tool for teaching and for management. External stakeholders (coastal managers) highlighted the importance of beach profiling data for management decisions and considered that this method produces robust data, even when carried out by volunteers. Further advantages of the application of the method, in the context of coastal management initiatives, for scientists, managers, and volunteers are discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ferreira M.A.,Instituto do Mar | Andrade F.,University of Lisbon | Mendes R.N.,University of Lisbon | Paula J.,University of Lisbon
European Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

Landsat 5 TM imagery from 2005 was used to map (at a coarse descriptive resolution) coastal habitats along the Tanzania/Mozambique transboundary zone. The map (available at http://www.transmap.fc.ul.pt/) was a reference for the study of environmental and social aspects, and for conservation, was disseminated among local stakeholders, ENGOs and various decision-making authorities and managers, and was used in the development of a transfrontier conservation area. Large scale remote sensing constitutes a cost-effective approach for research and management, as, with limited human, technical, temporal, and financial resources, it provides synoptic views of territories and allows for the estimation of quantitative changes in land use.


Kalwa J.,Atlas Elektronik GmbH | Pascoal A.,University of Lisbon | Ridao P.,University of Girona | Birk A.,Jacobs University Bremen | And 5 more authors.
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2012

The MORPH project (FP 7, 2012-2016) advances the novel concept of an underwater robotic system composed of a number of spatially separated mobile robot-modules, carrying complementary resources. Instead of being physically coupled, the modules are connected via communication links that rely on the flow of information among them, i. e. inter-module interactions are enabled by underwater communication networks at distant and close ranges and supported by visual perception at very close range. Without rigid links, the MSV can reconfigure itself and adapt in response to the shape of the terrain, including walls with negative slope. The MORPH concept requires qualitatively new behaviors such as adaptive sensor placement for perception and navigation, as well as environmental modeling in complex environments. On site view planning will lead to a solution well beyond the operational state of the art for underwater cliff surveys and other similar missions. A final demonstration on a vertical cliff, unfeasible automatically with today's technology, will validate the efficacy of the methods developed at the end of the project.


Gusmao L.F.M.,Instituto Do Mar | Gusmao L.F.M.,University of Sao Paulo | McKinnon A.D.,Australian Institute of Marine Science | Richardson A.J.,University of Queensland | Richardson A.J.,CSIRO
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013

Hirst et al. (2013; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 489:297-298) suggest that Gusmão et al. (2013; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 482:279-298) misinterpreted the findings of Hirst et al. (2010; Limnol Oceanogr 55:2193-2206). They restate that the major factors determining sex ratio in pelagic copepods act upon the adult stage, but they place less emphasis on the idea that predation on male copepods is a likely determinant, and highlight the role of physiological longevity. Here we reconsider the data and confirm our position that at present there is limited evidence to support the theory of male-skewed predation. However, we agree that sex determination is governed by a combination of factors, with the relative emphasis being the main point of contention between the 2 parties. © Inter-Research 2013 · www.int-res.com.


Roscales J.L.,University of Barcelona | Roscales J.L.,Institute of Organic Chemistry | Gomez-Diaz E.,University of Barcelona | Gomez-Diaz E.,Institute of Evolutionary Biology CSIC UPF | And 2 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2011

Feeding ecology and geographic location are 2 major factors influencing animal stable isotope signatures, but their relative contributions are poorly understood, which limits the usefulness of stable isotope analysis in the study of animal ecology. To improve our knowledge of the main sources of isotopic variability at sea, we determined δ 15N and δ 13C signatures in the first primary feather of adult birds from 11 Procellariiform species (n = 609) across 16 northeast Atlantic localities, from Cape Verde (20°N) to Iceland (60°N). Post-breeding areas (where the studied feather is thought to be grown) were determined using light-level geolocation for 6 of the 11 species. Isotopic variability was geographically unstructured within the mid-northeast Atlantic (Macaronesian archipelagos), but trophically structured according to species and regardless of the breeding location, presumably as a result of trophic segregation among species. Indeed, the interspecific isotopic overlap resulting from combining δ 15N and δ 13C signatures of seabirds was low, which suggests that most species exploited exclusive trophic resources consistently across their geographic range. Species breeding in north temperate regions (Iceland, Scotland and Northern Ireland) showed enriched δ 15N compared to the same or similar species breeding in tropical and subtropical regions, suggesting some differences in baseline levels between these regions. The present study illustrates a noticeable trophic segregation of northeast Atlantic Procellariiformes. Our results show that the isotopic approach has limited applicability for the study of animal movements in the northeast Atlantic at a regional scale, but is potentially useful for the study of long-distance migrations between large marine systems. © Inter-Research 2011.

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