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This paper presents estimates of the von Bertalanffy growth parameters for Jack mackerel T. murphyi caught in Peruvian waters from 1972 to 2012, based on length frequency analysis. L∞ was estimated from the maximum length observed throughout the history of the fishery, and was kept as a fixed parameter in the estimation of k obtained by fitting a growth curve to the monthly progression of modes. The estimated values were: L∞ = 81.6 cm and k = 0.167y-1. It is highlighted that this k values is similar to those estimated by other authors for Peru, and is higher than those estimated for the T. murphyi caught off in Chile. These results suggest that T. murphyi caught in Peru has a faster growth rate than the T. murphyi from Chile. © Los autores. Source

Dioses T.,Instituto del Mar del Peru
Revista Peruana de Biologia | Year: 2013

The age and growth of Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi Nichols 1920 was determined by the reading and measuring annual growth rings from 977 pairs of otoliths from specimens between 3 and 71 cm total length collected within the Peruvian maritime domain during 1978 and part of 1977 and 1979. The validity of the annual marks was confirmed with 50 otolith with 5 marks or annual zones, and also with the analysis of the monthly marginal increment in 240 otoliths of specimens between 35 and 39 cm obtained from July 1977 to June 1979. From the annual rings measurements and their respective retroestimated sizes, the following parameters of the von Bertalanfy ecuation for growth in length and weight were estimated: infinite length (L∞) = 80.77 cm, infinite weight (W∞) = 3744.10 g, growth coefficient (k) = 0.155, and theoretical age at length 0 (t0) = -0.356. The estimated parameters suggest that the Peruvian T. murphyi has a faster growth rate than the more southern T. murphyi. © Los autores. Source

Espinoza P.,Instituto del Mar del Peru | Bertrand A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2014

In this study, historical data available since 1954 were used to get new insight to ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability in Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta Engraulis ringens diet. Whatever the period, E. ringens foraged mainly on macrozooplankton and the importance of euphausiids in E. ringens diet appears directly related to euphausiids abundance. This bottom-up effect is also observed at smaller scale because the euphausiids fraction increased with E. ringens total length and euphausiids accessibility. Selecting the largest prey, the euphausiids, provides an energetic advantage for E. ringens in its ecosystem where oxygen depletion imposes strong metabolic constraints on pelagic fishes. This study illustrates the plasticity of E. ringens that allows it to cope with its highly variable environment. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. Source

This paper analyses information on various macro environmental variables available since 1876 for the Southeast Pacific and more recent data on Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (Nichols, 1920) landings and biomass in the Peruvian sea, relating them to probable areas of water masses equivalent to Cold Coastal Waters (CCW) and Subtropical Surface Waters (SSW). It is concluded that the index of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) presents expressions of variability that are consistent with those found for the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and that the detected changes in biomass of Jack mackerel T. murphyi in the Peruvian sea reflect changes in the availability of the fish stock associated with secular (SOI) and decadal (PDO) variability patterns. These fluctuations in stock availability impact fisheries in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile, which show significant variations in their landings and would have given a biased picture of the state of abundance, leading to wrong diagnoses of the real situation of the exploited stocks. These patterns of variability would also affect the appearance of El Niño, making them start in the southern hemisphere autumn or spring depending on whether the current PDO is positive or negative. Periods of high (1876 - 1925 and 1976 - 2012) and low (1926 - 1975) variability are also identified in relation to the Euclidean distance of the variances of the SOI; and in relation to the PDO a distinction is made between warm (1925 - 1944 and 1975 - 1994), cold (1945 - 1974) and tempered or interface periods (1895 - 1924 and 1995 - 2012), the latter being explained by the interaction between periods of high variability. © Los autores. Source

This paper analyzes information from IMARPE bio-oceanographic surveys conducted between 1961 and 2011 covering an area from 0 to 100 nm from the coast with observations at depths from 0 to 180 m; information from scientific observers on board Peruvian, Soviet and Cuban factory trawlers operating between 1983 - 1998; as well as time series of sea surface temperature anomalies, depth of the 15 °C isotherm and sea surface salinity from 1950 to date. Three patterns in the vertical distribution and depth of catches of Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi are identified and described in relation to changing environmental conditions: (1) During strong El Niño (EN) events shoals are at depths between 100 - 200 m, catches are higher and don't change much between day and night; (2) During strong upwellings shoals are shallower, at depths between 0 - 75 m and catches are more oceanic (offshore) and closer to the surface; and, (3) When there is a strengthen Southern Extension of the Cromwell Current (SECC) shoals are at depths between 0 and 300 m, fishing takes place closer to the coast being deeper during the day and shallower during the night. During cold periods there is lower abundance of T. murphyi due to the prevalence of Cold Coastal Waters (CCW) and the offshore shift of the Subtropical Surface Waters (SSW), while abundance is higher during warmer periods associated with EN events and the strengthening of the SECC. A certain latitudinal segregation by sizes in relation to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is also observed. © Los autores. Source

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