Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud

San José, Costa Rica

Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud

San José, Costa Rica

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Molina A.,University of Costa Rica | Granados-Chinchilla F.,University of Costa Rica | Jimenez M.,University of Costa Rica | Acuna-Calvo M.T.,Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud | Chavarria G.,University of Costa Rica
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2016

Relevant epidemiological information is provided in this report for Salmonella based on data obtained from a Costa Rican surveillance program for animal feeds. In addition to prevalence, a description in terms of serotypes and tetracycline (TET) resistance of the isolates is included. A total of 1725 feed and feed ingredients samples were analyzed during 2009 and 2014, from which 110 Salmonella strains were recovered (76 from poultry, 23 from meat and bone meal [MBM], 3 from pet foods, and 8 from other feed). Retrieved isolates were serotyped and tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against TET. Salmonella strains were found mainly from poultry feed (different growth stages, n = 76/110; 69.1%) and MBM (n = 23/109; 21.1%). The rest of the isolates were recovered from feather meal, pet food, fish meal (n = 3/110; 2.3% each) and swine feed (n = 1/110; 0.9%). From the different serotypes recovered (n = 21), the most common were Salmonella Give (n = 18; 13.8%) and Salmonella Rissen (n = 6; 4.6%) for MBM and Salmonella Havana (n = 14; 10.8%), Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Soerenga, and Salmonella Schwarzengrund (n = 8; 6.2% each) in poultry feed. Recovered strains were regarded to be sensitive or have an intermediate resistance to TET as evidenced by their MIC50 and MIC90 concentrations of 4 and 8 μg/mL for MBM and poultry feed, respectively. Compound feed and MBM samples exhibited strains characterized by 86.8 and 88.9% of the isolates classified (according to CLSI, 2015) as sensitive, 7.7 and 3.7% as intermediate, and 5.5% (with >256 μg/mL as the highest concentration) and 7.4% (with 64 μg/mL as the highest concentration) as resistant to TET, respectively. Salmonella serovars Anatum and Havana exhibited the highest resistance profile >256 and 128 μg/mL, respectively. Hence, MBM and poultry feed seem to be a target of interest if Salmonella incidence is to be controlled. Serotypes recovered have in the past demonstrated pathogenic capability; therefore, hereafter a stricter surveillance program may be in order. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, University of the Valley of Guatemala, Institute Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologicos InDRE, University of the West Indies and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Influenza and other respiratory viruses | Year: 2016

Influenza-associated illness results in increased morbidity and mortality in the Americas. These effects can be mitigated with an appropriately chosen and timed influenza vaccination campaign. To provide guidance in choosing the most suitable vaccine formulation and timing of administration, it is necessary to understand the timing of influenza seasonal epidemics.Our main objective was to determine whether influenza occurs in seasonal patterns in the American tropics and when these patterns occurred.Publicly available, monthly seasonal influenza data from the Pan American Health Organization and WHO, from countries in the American tropics, were obtained during 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 (excluding unseasonal pandemic activity during 2009-2010). For each country, we calculated the monthly proportion of samples that tested positive for influenza. We applied the monthly proportion data to a logistic regression model for each country.We analyzed 2002-2008 and 2011-2014 influenza surveillance data from the American tropics and identified 13 (81%) of 16 countries with influenza epidemics that, on average, started during May and lasted 4 months.The majority of countries in the American tropics have seasonal epidemics that start in May. Officials in these countries should consider the impact of vaccinating persons during April with the Southern Hemisphere formulation.


Benavides-Lara A.,Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud | Angel J.E.F.,Hospital Nacional Of Ninos Dr Carlos Saenz Herrera | Solis L.U.,Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud | Zuniga J.J.R.,National University of Costa Rica
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objective: Characterize the population of children born with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Costa Rica and evaluate the country's registry processes. Methods: Exploratory observational study that included all children with CHD diagnosed at the National Children's Hospital between 1 May 2006 and 1 May 2007. Considering children under 1 year of age and their respective birth cohort, prevalence was estimated by sex, type of heart disease, age at diagnosis, maternal age, habitual residence, and associated extracardiac malformations, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The data was compared with those of the Congenital Disease Registry Center (CREC). Results: During the period studied, 534 cases with CHD were diagnosed. There were 473 cases in children under 1 year of age in a birth cohort of 77 140 children. Prevalence was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.7). Based on CREC data, it was demonstrated that 71% of the cases were not detected at birth. The average age of diagnosis in infants under 1 year of age was 46.6 days. There were no differences by sex. Prevalence of CHD in children of mothers aged 35 years or over was significantly higher. However, when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded, the risk was no longer statistically significant. The provinces in the country with maritime ports were the areas with the highest risk in children of adolescent mothers. The most common CHDs were ventricular and atrial septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary valve stenosis, atrioventricular septal defects, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Thirtyfour percent of the cases of CHD were multiple, 11.2% were associated with chromosomal abnormalities, and 19% had associated congenital malformations. Conclusions: CHD prevalence in Costa Rica is within the range reported globally. Significant underreporting of CHD was found in the CREC, primarily due to the age criteria applied. The results suggest that maternal age (under 20 and over 34) is a factor associated with CHD.


Toscano C.M.,Federal University of Goais | Vijayaraghavan M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Salazar-Bolanos H.M.,Costa Rica Ministry of Health | Bolanos-Acuna H.M.,Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Introduction: Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives: We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods: We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results: During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions: Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for decision makers and donors planning and implementing similar strategies in other countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Masson L.,University of Chile | Masson L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Alfaro T.,Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud | Camilo C.,University of Chile | And 6 more authors.
Grasas y Aceites | Year: 2015

Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC) methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005), AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005), Ce 1j-07 (2007), allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs) in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs). Therefore, the selection of the temperature program to be employed is important. This work aimed to improve the AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method for the FA composition of a mixture of soybean and sunflower oil, fish oil, and butterfat, using a modified temperature program, tested among five laboratories. It takes more time, but it allows to completely separate butyric acid from the solvent, trans-18:1 from cis-18:1, 20:1 isomers from 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 from 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 from 24:0 and the main CLA isomers, thus permitting FA quantification in fats and oils for different purposes such as nutritional labeling, quality control and research. Copyright: © 2015 CSIC.


Abrahams-Sandi E.,University of Costa Rica | Mesen-Ramirez P.,Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud | Suarez-Chacon D.,University of Costa Rica | Fernandez-Quesada K.,Boston Scientific Costa Rica
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2011

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a potentially fatal zoonotic disease with a broad geographical distribution throughout Central and South America. This study assessed the performance of Angiostrongylus costaricensis eggs as the antigen in an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the determination of parasite-specific IgG and IgG1 antibodies. For prevalence studies, an IgG antibody titre ≥ 16 was identified as the diagnostic threshold with the best performance, providing 93.7% sensitivity and 84.6% specificity. Cross reactivity was evaluated with 65 additional samples from patients with other known parasitic infections. Cross reactivity was observed only in samples from individuals infected with Strongyloides stercoralis. For clinical diagnosis, we recommend the determination of IgG only as a screening test. IgG1 determination may be used to increase the specificity of the results for patients with a positive screening test.


De La Paz Barboza Arguello M.,Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud | Umana Solis L.M.,Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objective: Evaluate the impact of the fortification of food with folic acid on prevalence trends for neural tube defects (NTD) and the infant mortality rate (IMR) associated with this disorder in Costa Rica. Methods: The surveillance data from the Congenital Disease Registry Center and the Central American Population Center were analyzed. The neural tube defects considered were anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele. The trends from 1987-2009, as well as the differences in prevalence and mortality rates prior to and up to 12 years after food fortification with folic acid, were examined (95% confidence interval [CI]). The contribution of fortification to the decrease in the overall IMR was determined. Results: During 1987-1997, prior to the period of food fortification with folic acid, NTD prevalence was 12/10 000 births (95% CI: 11.1-12.8), whereas in 2009 prevalence was 5.1/10 000 births (3.3-6.5). The IMR associated with NTD was 0.64/1 000 births (46-0.82) in 1997 and 0.19/1 000 births (0.09-9.3) in 2009. There were significant decreases in the IMR associated with NTD and the prevalence of NTD: 71%, and 58%, respectively (P < 0.05). The overall IMR decreased from 14.2/1 000 births in 1997 to 8.84/1 000 births in 2009 (P < 0.05). The decrease in the IMR associated with NTD contributed to an 8.8% decrease in the overall IMR from 1997 to 2009. Conclusions: Food fortification with folic acid caused a decrease in NTD at birth and the IMR associated with this malformation during the 1997-2009 period. It also led to a decrease in the overall IMR. There is a temporal relationship between the introduction of fortification policies and the decrease in prevalence and mortality associated with NTD. This intervention should be promoted in Latin American and Caribbean countries where it has not yet been implemented.


PubMed | National University of Costa Rica and Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health | Year: 2014

Identify trends for different types of birth defects and their impact on infant (IMR) and neonatal (NMR) mortality rates in Costa Rica from 1981 to 2010.Infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality trends were analyzed, using data from the Central American Population Center, which uses the International Classification of Diseases, versions 9 and 10, to classify causes of death. For each group of birth defects, a Poisson log-linear regression model was constructed. IMR and NMR, relative risk, and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for the three decades (1981-1990, 1991-2000, and 2001-2010). Estimates were compared using Wald chi square.Comparison of the 1980s and the 2000s found a significant decrease in NMR and IMR from birth defects in these decades, from 2.37 (95%CI: 2.26-2.48) to 2.13 (2.03-2.23) and from 4.13 (3.99-4.27) to 3.18 (3.05-3.31), respectively. Reduction in IMR was significant for birth defect groups for nervous, digestive, and circulatory systems. There was also a significant drop in NMR for nervous and digestive system groups. All other groups experienced a significant increase or no change.IMR and NMR from birth defects have decreased, although these rates have increased proportionately due to a greater decline in other causes. This reduction is much smaller for neonatal mortality. Primary prevention and neonatal care of birth defects should be strengthened.


PubMed | Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health | Year: 2011

Evaluate the impact of the fortification of food with folic acid on prevalence trends for neural tube defects (NTD) and the infant mortality rate (IMR) associated with this disorder in Costa Rica.The surveillance data from the Congenital Disease Registry Center and the Central American Population Center were analyzed. The neural tube defects considered were anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele. The trends from 1987-2009, as well as the differences in prevalence and mortality rates prior to and up to 12 years after food fortification with folic acid, were examined (95% confidence interval [CI]). The contribution of fortification to the decrease in the overall IMR was determined.During 1987-1997, prior to the period of food fortification with folic acid, NTD prevalence was 12/10 000 births (95% CI: 11.1-12.8), whereas in 2009 prevalence was 5.1/10 000 births (3.3-6.5). The IMR associated with NTD was 0.64/1 000 births (46-0.82) in 1997 and 0.19/1 000 births (0.09-9.3) in 2009. There were significant decreases in the IMR associated with NTD and the prevalence of NTD: 71%, and 58%, respectively (P < 0.05). The overall IMR decreased from 14.2/1 000 births in 1997 to 8.84/1 000 births in 2009 (P < 0.05). The decrease in the IMR associated with NTD contributed to an 8.8% decrease in the overall IMR from 1997 to 2009.Food fortification with folic acid caused a decrease in NTD at birth and the IMR associated with this malformation during the 1997-2009 period. It also led to a decrease in the overall IMR. There is a temporal relationship between the introduction of fortification policies and the decrease in prevalence and mortality associated with NTD. This intervention should be promoted in Latin American and Caribbean countries where it has not yet been implemented.


PubMed | Instituto Costarricense Of Investigacion Y Ensenanza En Nutricion Y Salud
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health | Year: 2011

Characterize the population of children born with congenital heart disease (CHD) in Costa Rica and evaluate the countrys registry processes.Exploratory observational study that included all children with CHD diagnosed at the National Childrens Hospital between 1 May 2006 and 1 May 2007. Considering children under 1 year of age and their respective birth cohort, prevalence was estimated by sex, type of heart disease, age at diagnosis, maternal age, habitual residence, and associated extracardiac malformations, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The data was compared with those of the Congenital Disease Registry Center (CREC).During the period studied, 534 cases with CHD were diagnosed. There were 473 cases in children under 1 year of age in a birth cohort of 77 140 children. Prevalence was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.7). Based on CREC data, it was demonstrated that 71% of the cases were not detected at birth. The average age of diagnosis in infants under 1 year of age was 46.6 days. There were no differences by sex. Prevalence of CHD in children of mothers aged 35 years or over was significantly higher. However, when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded, the risk was no longer statistically significant. The provinces in the country with maritime ports were the areas with the highest risk in children of adolescent mothers. The most common CHDs were ventricular and atrial septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary valve stenosis, atrioventricular septal defects, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Thirty-four percent of the cases of CHD were multiple, 11.2% were associated with chromosomal abnormalities, and 19% had associated congenital malformations.CHD prevalence in Costa Rica is within the range reported globally. Significant underreporting of CHD was found in the CREC, primarily due to the age criteria applied. The results suggest that maternal age (under 20 and over 34) is a factor associated with CHD.

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