Instituto Coral Vivo

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Instituto Coral Vivo

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Leite D.C.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Leao P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Garrido A.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Lins U.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 13 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2017

The hologenome theory of evolution (HTE), which is under fierce debate, presupposes that parts of the microbiome are transmitted from one generation to the next [vertical transmission (VT)], which may also influence the evolution of the holobiont. Even though bacteria have previously been described in early life stages of corals, these early life stages (larvae) could have been inoculated in the water and not inside the parental colony (through gametes) carrying the parental microbiome. How Symbiodinium is transmitted to offspring is also not clear, as only one study has described this mechanism in spawners. All other studies refer to incubators. To explore the VT hypothesis and the key components being transferred, colonies of the broadcast spawner species Mussismilia hispida were kept in nurseries until spawning. Gamete bundles, larvae and adult corals were analyzed to identify their associated microbiota with respect to composition and location. Symbiodinium and bacteria were detected by sequencing in gametes and coral planula larvae. However, no cells were detected using microscopy at the gamete stage, which could be related to the absence of those cells inside the oocytes/dispersed in the mucus or to a low resolution of our approach. A preliminary survey of Symbiodinium diversity indicated that parental colonies harbored Symbiodinium clades B, C and G, whereas only clade B was found in oocytes and planula larvae [5 days after fertilization (a.f.)]. The core bacterial populations found in the bundles, planula larvae and parental colonies were identified as members of the genera Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Ralstonia, Inquilinus and Bacillus, suggesting that these populations could be vertically transferred through the mucus. The collective data suggest that spawner corals, such as M. hispida, can transmit Symbiodinium cells and the bacterial core to their offspring by a coral gamete (and that this gamete, with its bacterial load, is released into the water), supporting the HTE. However, more data are required to indicate the stability of the transmitted populations to indicate whether the holobiont can be considered a unit of natural selection or a symbiotic assemblage of independently evolving organisms. © 2017 Leite, Leão, Garrido, Lins, Santos, Pires, Castro, van Elsas, Zilberberg, Rosado and Peixoto.


de Barros Marangoni L.F.,Grande Rio University | Calderon E.N.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Calderon E.N.,Instituto Coral Vivo | Marques J.A.,Grande Rio University | And 5 more authors.
Coral Reefs | Year: 2017

Ocean acidification is expected to intensify due to increasing levels in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). This could negatively affect major calcifying reef organisms. In this study, the effects of different levels of CO2-driven acidification of seawater (control: pH 8.1; moderate: pH 7.8; intermediate: pH 7.5; and severe: pH 7.2) on the net calcification rate and activity of enzymes related to the calcification process (Ca-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase) were evaluated in the calcareous hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis. The experiment was run for 30 d using a marine mesocosm system. Net calcification ratio was significantly reduced in hydrocorals exposed to intermediate seawater acidification for 16 d and to severe seawater acidification for 16 d or 30 d, compared to animals at control conditions. However, only hydrocorals exposed to severe seawater acidification showed lower net calcification rates than those exposed to control conditions for 30 d. In accordance, the activities of enzymes involved in the calcification process markedly increased in hydrocorals exposed to reduced pH. Ca-ATPase seemed to be more sensitive to seawater acidification than carbonic anhydrase as it increased in hydrocorals exposed to intermediate and severe seawater acidification for 30 d, while carbonic anhydrase activity was only stimulated under severe seawater acidification. Therefore, our findings clearly show that the hydrocoral M. alcicornis is able to cope, to some extent, with long-term CO2-driven acidification of seawater (pH ≥ 7.5). In addition, they show that Ca-ATPase plays a key role in the maintenance of calcification rate under scenarios of moderate and intermediate levels of seawater acidification. However, the observed increase in Ca-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activity was not enough to compensate for the effects of CO2-driven reduction in seawater pH on the net calcification rate of the hydrocoral M. alcicornis under a scenario of severe ocean acidification (pH 7.2). © 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany


Tedesco E.C.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Tedesco E.C.,Instituto Coral Vivo | Segal B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Segal B.,Instituto Coral Vivo | And 4 more authors.
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research | Year: 2017

Brazil has the most extensive and richest areas of coral reefs in the South Atlantic Ocean, with its fauna characterized by high endemism and adaptations related to its growth and morphology, to its coral building fauna and to the depositional environment that differ from other coral reefs around the world. In spite of the effects from changes in the global environmental, the main stress factors for Brazilian reefs are local level threats, such as pollution and overfishing. The effects from these threats reduce biodiversity and result in decreasing stocks at different trophic levels. The trend that currently exists, regarding marine resource use, implies that reassessing the conservation strategies is urgently necessary if the degradation of these environments is to be reversed. It is necessary that the practices used in adjacent watersheds be improved, combined with actions to protect and recover native vegetation, along with planning for developing coastal areas, which will ensure that sedimentation rates be controlled and pollution sources are drastically reduced. Brazil should have to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to lead an evolution from traditional threat management in individual portions of ecosystems to large-scale management strategies in complex socio-economic and natural systems. © Escuela de Ciencias del Mar. All rights reserved.


Fonseca J.D.S.,Grande Rio University | Marangoni L.F.D.B.,Grande Rio University | Marangoni L.F.D.B.,Instituto Coral Vivo | Marques J.A.,Grande Rio University | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2017

Effects of increasing temperature alone and in combination with exposure to dissolved copper (Cu) were evaluated in the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Mussismilia harttii using a marine mesocosm system. Endpoints analyzed included parameters involved in metabolism [maximum photosynthetic capacity of zooxanthellae (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll a and ATP concentrations], calcification [carbonic anhydrase (CA) and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity], and oxidative status [antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO)]. Coral polyps were collected, acclimated and exposed to three increasing temperature conditions [25.0 ± 0.1 °C (control; average temperature of local seawater), 26.6 ± 0.1 °C and 27.3 ± 0.1 °C] using a marine mesocosm system. They were tested alone and in combination with four environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved Cu in seawater [2.9 ± 0.7 (control; average concentration in local seawater), 3.8 ± 0.8, 5.4 ± 0.9 and 8.6 ± 0.3 μg/L] for 4, 8 and 12 days. Fv/Fm reduced over the experimental period with increasing temperature. Combination of increasing temperature with Cu exposure enhanced this effect. CA and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities increased up to 8 days of exposure, but recovered back after 12 days of experiment. Short-term exposure to increasing temperature or long-term exposure to the combination of stressors reduced LPO, suggesting the occurrence of a remodeling process in the lipid composition of biological membranes. ACAP, ATP and chlorophyll a were not significantly affected by the stressors. These findings indicate that increasing temperature combined with exposure to dissolved Cu increase susceptibility to bleaching and reduce growth in the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral M. harttii. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Liedke A.M.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bonaldo R.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Bonaldo R.M.,University of Campinas | Segal B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2017

Resource partitioning is considered one of the main processes driving diversification in ecological communities because it allows coexistence among closely related and ecologically equivalent species. We combined three complementary approaches, i.e. the evaluation of foraging behaviour, diet composition and nutritional condition (RNA:DNA ratio), to assess feeding by two closely related (sister) butterflyfishes that are syntopic in Puerto Rico. Chaetodon capistratus had a higher abundance and higher bite rate and selected octocorals and hard corals for feeding, whereas Chaetodon striatus fed preferentially on sandy substrates. Cnidarians and polychaetes were the most representative diet items for both species, but C. capistratus preferred the former (Feeding Index of 74.3%) and C. striatus the latter (Feeding Index of 60.4%). Similar RNA:DNA ratios for both species suggest that, although they differ in feeding rates and diet, C. capistratus and C. striatus have similar nutritional fitness. Therefore, these species are both zoobenthivores but show clear differences in their substrate selection. The differences in the use of foraging substrate by C. capistratus and C. striatus, despite their close phylogenetic relationship and similar diets, suggest that these species coexist by resource partitioning. Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2017


Scherner F.,University of Pernambuco | Pereira C.M.,Instituto Coral Vivo | Duarte G.,Instituto Coral Vivo | Duarte G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the highly variable environment they inhabit. © 2016 Scherner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Liedke A.M.R.,Federal University of Paraná | Liedke A.M.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Barneche D.R.,Monash University | Ferreira C.E.L.,Federal University of Fluminense | And 10 more authors.
Marine Biology | Year: 2016

The feeding behaviour and diet plasticity of a given species are usually shaped by the relationship between species physiology and the quality and availability of resources in the environment. As such, some species may achieve wide geographical distributions by utilizing multiple resources at different sites within their ranges. We studied the distribution and feeding of Chaetodon striatus, the most widespread butterflyfish in the Atlantic, by assessing its density and foraging rates in eight sites enclosing 44° of latitude. We also evaluated the relationship between fish density and foraging rates with nutritional condition and diet across study sites, and the gut length relative to body size. Density and foraging rates did not differ among studied sites. In 169 stomachs analysed, we found 52 different items (12–23 per site). Polychaeta and Cnidaria were the most important items in seven study sites. Therefore, C. striatus may be considered as a non-coral generalist feeder, as it feeds on a wide variety of items and substrata along the studied range, with no consistent selectivity pattern for foraging substratum across sites. Individuals from all sites but Salvador (NE Brazil) had similar RNA/DNA ratios, suggesting that C. striatus nutritional condition is similar along its extensive distribution. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing different sites within the distribution range of generalist butterflyfishes, and different variables, to a better comprehension of the feeding ecology of these species. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Labbe-Bellas R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Cordeiro C.A.M.M.,IRD Montpellier | Floeter S.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Segal B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Segal B.,Instituto Coral Vivo
Regional Studies in Marine Science | Year: 2016

Sea urchins exhibit close linkages with the substrate, derived from their life habits such as locomotion and feeding. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the distribution and abundance patterns of urchins and their relationships with habitat characteristics (habitat complexity, depth, and benthic percent cover) at the microhabitat scale in Brazilian reefs. In situ sampling was performed during scuba diving, using 0.5mx0.5m quadrat counts and the percent cover of the microhabitat variables. Six species of urchins were found in subtropical reefs (Santa Catarina), including a new record of the species Tripneustes ventricosus. At the tropical coral reef (Recife de Fora) four species were found but E. lucunterwas by far the most abundant species (12.7±1.1 ind.m−2). At the subtropical rocky reefs, E. lucuntermean density in shallow areas was 5.12±2.1 ind.m−2. Other species were also representative in these reefs, such as Arbacia lixula (1.67 ind.m−2) and Paracentrotus gaimardi (1.34 ind.m−2). The structure of the assemblages of sea urchins was different between biogenic and rocky reefs, with the latter showing higher species richness but lower abundances of sea urchins. Despite intrinsic differences in studied reefs, the sea urchins abundance was mainly related to structural complexity (reef building organisms, holes and crevices) indicating that, in general, the reef spatial structure is crucial to sea urchin species due to direct and indirect resources provided. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Picciani N.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Picciani N.,Instituto Coral Vivo | Picciani N.,University of California at Santa Barbara | de Lossio e Seiblitz I.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 5 more authors.
Marine Biology | Year: 2016

Shallow water reef-building corals associate with photosynthesizing dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) that may affect growth and resilience of their hosts. Understanding host–symbiont associations is critical for assessing the susceptibility of corals to climatic changes. Despite that, the diversity of Symbiodinium associated with corals from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean is poorly known. Here, we describe diversity across major Symbiodinium clades associated with colonies of the endemic reef-building coral Mussismilia hispida (Verrill, 1902) along the Brazilian coast. By analyzing the 18S rDNA gene, we found that M. hispida associates with three clades of Symbiodinium (A, B and C). Moreover, the geographic distribution of host–symbiont associations is related to temperature and turbidity and closely follows previously recognized reef regions along the Brazilian coast. These results suggest that similar ecological processes are likely shaping both the reef communities and the host–symbiont associations over M. hispida distribution along the coast. Our study provides an advance in the understanding of symbiont diversity in a key reef-building coral. In addition, it contributes new insights for future investigations aiming at comprehending the factors determining Symbiodinium geographic distribution. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Federal University of Santa Catarina, Instituto Coral Vivo and University of Pernambuco
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the highly variable environment they inhabit.

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