Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges

Panamá, Panama

Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges

Panamá, Panama
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Futami K.,Nagasaki University | Valderrama A.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Baldi M.,National University of Costa Rica | Minakawa N.,Nagasaki University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2015

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a vector of several human pathogens. Ae. albopictus is also an invasive species that, over recent years, has expanded its range out of its native Asia. Ae. albopictus was suspected to be present in Central America since the 1990s, and its presence was confirmed by most Central American nations by 2010. Recently, this species has been regularly found, yet in low numbers, in limited areas of Panamá and Costa Rica (CR). Here, we report that short sequences (∼558 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes of Ae. albopictus, had no haplotype diversity. Instead, there was a common haplotype for each gene in both CR and Panamá. In contrast, a long COI sequence (∼1,390 bp) revealed that haplotype diversity (±SD) was relatively high in CR (0.72 ± 0.04) when compared with Panamá (0.33 ± 0.13), below the global estimate for reported samples (0.89 ± 0.01). The long COI sequence allowed us to identify seven (five new) haplotypes in CR and two (one new) in Panamá. A haplotype network for the long COI gene sequence showed that samples from CR and Panamá belong to a single large group. The long COI gene sequences suggest that haplotypes in Panamá and CR, although similar to each other, had a significant geographic differentiation (Kst = 1.33; P < 0.001). Thus, most of our results suggest a recent range expansion in CR and Panamá. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.


PubMed | National University of Costa Rica, Ministerio de Salud, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges and Nagasaki University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), is a vector of several human pathogens. Ae. albopictus is also an invasive species that, over recent years, has expanded its range out of its native Asia. Ae. albopictus was suspected to be present in Central America since the 1990s, and its presence was confirmed by most Central American nations by 2010. Recently, this species has been regularly found, yet in low numbers, in limited areas of Panam and Costa Rica (CR). Here, we report that short sequences (558 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes of Ae. albopictus, had no haplotype diversity. Instead, there was a common haplotype for each gene in both CR and Panam. In contrast, a long COI sequence (1,390 bp) revealed that haplotype diversity (SD) was relatively high in CR (0.720.04) when compared with Panam (0.330.13), below the global estimate for reported samples (0.890.01). The long COI sequence allowed us to identify seven (five new) haplotypes in CR and two (one new) in Panam. A haplotype network for the long COI gene sequence showed that samples from CR and Panam belong to a single large group. The long COI gene sequences suggest that haplotypes in Panam and CR, although similar to each other, had a significant geographic differentiation (Kst=1.33; P<0.001). Thus, most of our results suggest a recent range expansion in CR and Panam.


PubMed | University of the Republic of Uruguay, University of Tolima, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges and University of Antioquia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

The Rhodnius Pacific group is composed of three species: Rhodnius pallescens, R. colombiensis and R. ecuadoriensis, which are considered important vectors of trypanosomes (Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli) infecting humans. This group is considered as a recent trans-Andean lineage derived from the widespread distributed sister taxa R. pictipes during the later uplift of northern Andes mountain range. The widest spread species R. pallescens may be a complex of two divergent lineages with different chromosomal attributes and a particular biogeographical distribution across Central America and Colombia with several southern populations in Colombia occupying the same sylvatic habitat as its sister species R. colombiensis. Although the taxonomy of Rhodnius Pacific group has been well studied, the unresolved phylogenetic and systematic issues are the target of this paper. Here we explore the molecular phylogeography of this species group analyzing two mitochondrial (ND4 and cyt b) and one nuclear (D2 region of ribosomal 28S gene) gene sequences. The molecular analyses suggest an early divergence of the species R. ecuadoriensis and R. colombiensis, followed by a recent expansion of R. pallescens lineages. The phylogenetic relationship between sympatric R. pallescens Colombian lineage and R. colombiensis was further explored using wing morphometry, DNA genome size measurements, and by analyzing chromosomal behavior of hybrids progeny obtained from experimental crosses. Our results suggest that the diversification of the two R. pallescens lineages was mainly influenced by biogeographical events such as (i) the emergence of the Panama Isthmus, while the origin and divergence of R. colombiensis was associated with (ii) the development of particular genetic and chromosomal features that act as isolation mechanisms from its sister species R. pallescens (Colombian lineage). These findings provide new insights into the evolution of the Rhodnius Pacific group and the underlying biological processes that occurred during its divergence.


Saldana A.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Saldana A.,University of Panamá | Chaves L.F.,National University of Costa Rica | Chaves L.F.,Hokkaido University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission patterns have been increasingly associated with domestic and peridomestic environments. Here, we present results from an epidemiological survey of 94 people from 24 households in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We studied the role of sand fly abundance, housing quality, peridomicile landscape matrix, and vegetation structure on shaping household clinical ACL rate patterns at Trinidad de Las Minas. We found that sand fly abundance was significantly associated with household clinical ACL rates, with a 6% rate increase for each additional Lutzomyia gomezi sand fly found inside a domicile. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Miranda A.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Saldana A.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Saldana A.,University of Panamá | Gonzalez K.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | And 5 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major vectorborne disease in Panama. In this study, the diagnostic performance and usefulness of two DNA extraction procedures from skin scraping samples collected on FTA filter paper for subsequent PCR diagnosis of CL was evaluated. A positive CL laboratory diagnosis was based on a positive parasitological test (Giemsa-stained smears or in vitro culture) and/or positive PCR test performed from skin scrapings collected in TE buffer (PCR-TE). Of 100 patients with skin lesions suggestive of CL, 82 (82%) were confirmed as CL positive. The sensitivity was calculated for each of the PCR approaches from samples collected on filter paper. The highest sensitivity was achieved by PCR-FTA processed by Chelex 100 (PCR-Chelex) (0.94). PCR-FTA extracted using the FTA purification reagent presented a lower sensitivity (0.60). Good concordance between routine PCR-TE and PCR-Chelex was observed (percent agreement. =. 0.88, κ index. =. 0.65). In conclusion, use of FTA filter paper for skin scraping collection combined with PCR is a reliable and convenient method for CL diagnosis in Panama, with comparable performance to the routine PCR method and with improved sensitivity compared with those of conventional parasitological methods. © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Torres O.A.,Institute Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra | Calzada J.E.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Beraun Y.,Institute Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra | Morillo C.A.,Fundacion Cardiovascular de Colombia | And 3 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Genetic susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the development of cardiomyopathy is complex, heterogeneous, and likely involves several genes. Previous studies have implicated cytokine and chemokine genes in susceptibility to Chagas disease. Here we investigated the association between the interferon-gamma gene (IFNG) +874T/A polymorphism and Chagas disease, focusing on susceptibility and severity. This study included 236 chagasic patients (asymptomatic, n=116; cardiomyopathic, n=120) and 282 healthy controls from a Colombian population where T. cruzi is highly endemic. Individuals were genotyped for functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2430561; A/T) of the IFNG gene by amplification refractory mutational system PCR (ARMS-PCR). Moreover, clinical manifestations of Chagas in patients were analyzed. We found a significant difference in the distribution of the IFNG +874 "A" allele between patients and healthy controls (P=0.003; OR = 1.46, 95% CI, 1.13-1.89). The frequency of the IFNG +874 genotype A/A, which is associated with reduced production of interferon-gamma, was increased in the patients relative to controls (38.1% vs. 26.6%). We compared the frequencies of IFNG alleles and genotypes between asymptomatic patients and those with chagasic cardiomyopathy and found no significant difference. Our data suggest that the IFNG +874T/A genetic polymorphism may be involved in susceptibility but not in the progression of Chagas disease in this Colombian population. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | National University of Costa Rica, University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh, Emory University, University of Costa Rica and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical medicine and health | Year: 2015

The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America.


Chaves L.F.,Nagasaki University | Chaves L.F.,National University of Costa Rica | Calzada J.E.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Valderrama A.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Saldana A.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical vector-borne disease. Sand fly vectors (SF) and Leishmania spp parasites are sensitive to changes in weather conditions, rendering disease transmission susceptible to changes in local and global scale climatic patterns. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SF abundance is impacted by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and how these changes might relate to changes in CL transmission.We studied association patterns between monthly time series, from January 2000 to December 2010, of: CL cases, rainfall and temperature from Panamá, and an ENSO index. We employed autoregressive models and cross wavelet coherence, to quantify the seasonal and interannual impact of local climate and ENSO on CL dynamics. We employed Poisson Rate Generalized Linear Mixed Models to study SF abundance patterns across ENSO phases, seasons and eco-epidemiological settings, employing records from 640 night-trap sampling collections spanning 2000–2011. We found that ENSO, rainfall and temperature were associated with CL cycles at interannual scales, while seasonal patterns were mainly associated with rainfall and temperature. Sand fly (SF) vector abundance, on average, decreased during the hot and cold ENSO phases, when compared with the normal ENSO phase, yet variability in vector abundance was largest during the cold ENSO phase. Our results showed a three month lagged association between SF vector abundance and CL cases.Association patterns of CL with ENSO and local climatic factors in Panamá indicate that interannual CL cycles might be driven by ENSO, while the CL seasonality was mainly associated with temperature and rainfall variability. CL cases and SF abundance were associated in a fashion suggesting that sudden extraordinary changes in vector abundance might increase the potential for CL epidemic outbreaks, given that CL epidemics occur during the cold ENSO phase, a time when SF abundance shows its highest fluctuations. © 2014 Chaves et al.


Hurtado L.A.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Caceres L.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges | Chaves L.F.,Nagasaki University | Chaves L.F.,National University of Costa Rica | Calzada J.E.,Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges
Emerging Microbes and Infections | Year: 2014

A major challenge of infectious disease elimination is the need to interrupt pathogen transmission across all vulnerable populations. Ethnic minorities are among the key vulnerable groups deserving special attention in disease elimination initiatives, especially because their lifestyle might be intrinsically linked to locations with high transmission risk. There has been a renewed interest in malaria elimination, which has ignited a quest to understand factors necessary for sustainable malaria elimination, highlighting the need for diverse approaches to address epidemiological heterogeneity across malaria transmission settings. An analysis of malaria incidence among the Guna Amerindians of Panamá over the last 34 years showed that this ethnic minority was highly vulnerable to changes that were assumed to not impact malaria transmission. Epidemic outbreaks were linked with El Niño Southern Oscillations and were sensitive to political instability and policy changes that did not ensure adequate attention to the malaria control needs of the Gunas. Our results illustrate how the neglect of minorities poses a threat to the sustainable control and eventual elimination of malaria in Central America and other areas where ethnic minorities do not share the benefits of malaria control strategies intended for dominant ethnic groups. © 2014, NPG. All rights reserved.


PubMed | National University of Costa Rica and Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas Of Estudios Of La Salud Icges
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Emerging microbes & infections | Year: 2015

A major challenge of infectious disease elimination is the need to interrupt pathogen transmission across all vulnerable populations. Ethnic minorities are among the key vulnerable groups deserving special attention in disease elimination initiatives, especially because their lifestyle might be intrinsically linked to locations with high transmission risk. There has been a renewed interest in malaria elimination, which has ignited a quest to understand factors necessary for sustainable malaria elimination, highlighting the need for diverse approaches to address epidemiological heterogeneity across malaria transmission settings. An analysis of malaria incidence among the Guna Amerindians of Panam over the last 34 years showed that this ethnic minority was highly vulnerable to changes that were assumed to not impact malaria transmission. Epidemic outbreaks were linked with El Nio Southern Oscillations and were sensitive to political instability and policy changes that did not ensure adequate attention to the malaria control needs of the Gunas. Our results illustrate how the neglect of minorities poses a threat to the sustainable control and eventual elimination of malaria in Central America and other areas where ethnic minorities do not share the benefits of malaria control strategies intended for dominant ethnic groups.

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