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Rodriguez-Rubio E.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo ICP
Advances in Geosciences | Year: 2013

Indices of the interannual and interdecadal variability at Tumaco Island (2° N; 79° W; Colombia), based on time series of sea surface temperature (SST), air temperature (AT) and precipitation (P) from a coastal station, are presented regarding the period 1960-2010. These indices are derived from the first two EOF (empirical orthogonal function) modes of the normalized time series, which grasp 84% of the explained variance. The first EOF represents the interannual variability closely correlated with the ENSO-related SST variability of region Niño 1+2 (r Combining double low line 0.74; lag Combining double low line 1), Niño 3 (r Combining double low line 0.71; lag Combining double low line 1), and the well-known period band 2-8 yr. Furthermore, the first EOF also accounts for the extreme warm events in the eastern equatorial Pacific due to them being well correlated with the E index (r Combining double low line 0.70). The second EOF represents a much longer variability dominated by the ENSO-like mode or Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), represented by two interdecadal modes (8-16 yr and 20-30 yr), and may account also with moderate warm events and cool events, being more sensitive to cool events. ©Author(s) 2013.

Ramirez Hernandez A.Y.,University of Medellín | Kraft M.,University of Cambridge | Molina A.,University of Medellín | Almanza Sr. L.O.,Ecopetrol SA | Vivas Baez J.C.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo ICP
AIChE 2012 - 2012 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

A discussion on the gas phase mechanisms for predicting coke deposition during thermal cracking of light hydrocarbons covers the undesirable effects during thermal cracking, e.g., coke deposition on the walls of the tubular reactor; selection of a proper gaseous phase model that renders the information required to properly construct a coke deposition model; elemental reactions for the thermal cracking of light hydrocarbons, e.g., ethane, propane, and propylene; changes in the kinetic mechanism; and predictions with the USC mechanism. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2012 AIChE Annual Meeting (Pittsburgh, PA 10/28/2012-11/2/2012).

Vasquez J.W.,Roche Holding AG | Trave-Massuyes L.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Subias A.,INSA Toulouse | Jimenez F.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Agudelo C.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo ICP
IFAC-PapersOnLine | Year: 2016

The transitions between operational modes (start up/shut down) in chemical processes generate alarm floods and cause critical alarm saturation. We propose in this paper an approach of alarm management based on a diagnosis process. This diagnosis step relies on situation recognition to provide to the operators relevant information on the failures inducing the alarms flows. The situation recognition is based on chronicle recognition where we propose to use the hybrid causal model of the system and the expertise to generate the pattern event sequences from which the chronicles will be extracted using the Heuristic Chronicle Discovery Algorithm Modified HCDAM. An illustrative example in the field of petrochemical plants is presented in the article. © 2016

Ordonez I.S.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo ICP | Franco D.C.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo ICP | Montagut S.R.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo ICP | Uribe A.R.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo ICP | Jimenez C.B.,Ecopetrol SA
10AIChE - 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

Conventional planning strategies include only economical criteria to take decisions which do not guarantee a sustainable development of supply chain. Energy and environmental issues (E&E) are complex and conflict objectives in supply chain planning problems, especially in oil & gas industry. This work shows a multicriteria decision strategy which takes account both objectives (E&E) applied to strategic planning of energetic supply chain in Colombian oil & gas industry. Environmental issues are represented by: new investment in green technologies (wind, solar and geothermal energy), environmental penalties within objective function using environmental retributive taxes. Energy issues are represented by typical mass and heat balances coupled to operating equipment conditions constraints. The model aim is to find an E&E optimal combination among actual utilities plants, commercial energy suppliers and new utilities plants. For this purpose, the model was formulated using an objective function which minimizes net present value of several E&E cost issues involved over a time horizon upper to 20 years. Future reservoirs of oil-crude and gas, chain energy requirements, sets of investments and emissions factor are the most important model inputs. The model obtained is a multi-period mixed-integer non-linear problem (MINLP) which includes additionally: energy reliability for commercial supplier, costs (fixed and variable), investments in conventional and green technologies for power generation, financial risk in energy prices from commercial suppliers. This model is implemented in GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) and applied to a representative chain supply of oil & gas Colombian industry composed by around 300 oil fields, 51 transport terminals and 4 refineries. Model results will be summarized in a decision matrix which will let to find future energy demand critical points, to evaluate environmental impact of power generation and take decisions about new investments.

Forero Sotomonte S.,Industrial University of Santander | Blanco Pinzon C.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo ICP | Garcia Vergara S.,Industrial University of Santander
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016

The growth of PEO ceramic coatings on AA 2024-T3 aluminium alloy in an aqueous Na2SiO3 (10.5g/l), KOH (2.8g/l) solution at 310 and 400V for 500 and 710s, was investigated. The morphology, roughness and thickness of the coatings were determined by SEM, digital microscopy, XRD diffraction analysis and thickness measuring instrument. The results show that thicker coatings are produced with longer process times and high applied voltages. Due to the nature of the PEO process, the roughness of the surface coatings increases as the coating become thicker, due to the development of sparks. The coatings are porous, with a crater like morphology and they are mainly amorphous.

Munoz Pinto D.A.,Industrial University of Santander | Cuervo Camargo S.M.,Industrial University of Santander | Orozco Parra M.,Industrial University of Santander | Laverde D.,Industrial University of Santander | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2016

Fouling in heat exchangers is produced by the deposition of undesired materials on metal surfaces. As fouling progresses, pressure drop and heat transfer resistance is observed and therefore the overall thermal efficiency of the equipment diminishes. Fouling is mainly caused by the deposition of suspended particles, such as those from chemical reactions, crystallization of certain salts, and some corrosion processes. In order to understand the formation of fouling deposits from Colombian heavy oil (API≈12.3) on carbon steel SA 516 Gr 70, a batch stirred tank reactor was used. The reactor was operated at a constant pressure of 340psi while varying the temperature and reaction times. To evaluate the formation of deposits on the metal surfaces, the steel samples were characterized by gravimetric analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). On the exposed surfaces, the results revealed an increase in the total mass derived from the deposition of salt compounds, iron oxides and alkaline metals. In general, fouling was modulated by both the temperature and the reaction time, but under the experimental conditions, the temperature seems to be the predominant variable that controls and accelerates fouling.

Tamara J.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo ICP | Mora A.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo ICP | Robles W.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo ICP | Kammer A.,National University of Colombia | And 19 more authors.
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2015

Analysis of fracture systems in subsurface structures is limited by the amount and uncertainty of available data. With the aim of analyzing the distribution of fracture systems, we studied surface structures as analogs for oil fields in the fractured reservoirs of the Llanos foothills of Colombia. Here, we document the presence of four widespread fracture systems whose distribution is related to fold geometry and folding mechanism. At surface, in the Tierranegra and Silbadero anticlines, the principal fracture systems are symmetrical with respect to northeast- and northwest-trending fold axes, showing higher fracture intensities in the forelimbs of the structures. In the Guavio anticline, higher fracture intensities are located in the backlimb, with principal east-west and northwest-southeast directions. In contrast, we document northeast-southwest fractures near the hinge zones in the adjacent synclines. This distribution suggests that in the Guavio anticline, fractures respond to movement of the hanging-wall above a ramp, consistent with a fault-bend-fold model. Whereas, in the Tierranegra and Silbadero anticlines, fractures respond to limb rotation and hinge migration consistent with detachment fold models. Comparing these with subsurface structures, we identified that El Morro anticline has fracture distributions like those in the Tierranegra and Silbadero anticlines, but have higher fracture intensities. In the case of the Cusiana Structure, fracture intensities are higher in the crest but not in the limbs, and intensities differ from the ones found in the Guavio anticline, showing that these structures are not appropriate analogs. The results show how fracture distribution depends on structural position and fold evolution, and is controlled in part by folding mechanism. This suggests that models based on Holocene fold geometry cannot accurately predict the observed fracture distributions and should not be used to construct discrete fracture network models. Instead, the patterns we describe can be used as a guide for similar structures. Our work illustrates the possibility of having different fracture patterns and fracture abundances in adjacent folds in the same fold-thrust belt. Copyright ©2015. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

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