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Villagomez D.,University of Geneva | Spikings R.,University of Geneva | Mora A.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo | Guzman G.,Invemar | And 3 more authors.
Tectonics | Year: 2011

The topographically prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta forms part of a faulted block of continental crust located along the northern boundary of the South American Plate, hosts the highest elevation in the world (∼5.75 km) whose local base is at sea level, and juxtaposes oceanic plateau rocks of the Caribbean Plate. Quantification of the amount and timing of exhumation constrains interpretations of the history of the plate boundary, and the driving forces of rock uplift along the active margin. The Sierra Nevada Province of the southernmost Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with northwestern South America. A second pulse of exhumation (≥0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was driven by underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. Subsequent exhumation at 40-25 Ma (≥0.15 Km/My) is recorded proximal to the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault. More northerly regions of the Sierra Nevada Province exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (∼0.7 Km/My). Further northward, the Santa Marta Province exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. The highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed toward the northwest via the propagation of NW verging thrusts. Exhumation is not recorded after ∼16 Ma, which is unexpected given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and surface uplift that gave rise to the current topography was very recent (i.e., ≤1 Ma?), and there has been insufficient time to expose the fossil apatite partial annealing zone. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Cardona A.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Cardona A.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo | Valencia V.,University of Arizona | Bustamante C.,EAFIT University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2010

Metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary rocks accreted to the northern South American continental margin are major vestiges of the Caribbean oceanic plate evolution and its interactions with the continent. Selected whole rock geochemistry, Nd-Sr isotopes and detrital zircon geochronology were obtained in metabasic and metasedimentary rocks from the Santa Marta and San Lorenzo Schists in northernmost Colombia. Trace element patterns are characterized by primitive island arc and MORB signatures. Similarly initial 87Sr/86Sr-εNd isotopic relations correlate with oceanic arcs and MORB reservoirs, suggesting that the protoliths were formed within a back-arc setting or at the transition between the inta-oceanic arc and the Caribbean oceanic crust. Trace element trends from associated metasedimentary rocks show that the provenance was controlled by a volcanic arc and a sialic continental domain, whereas detrital U/Pb zircons from the Santa Marta Schists and adjacent southeastern metamorphic units show Late Cretaceous and older Mesozoic, Late Paleozoic and Mesoproterozoic sources. Comparison with continental inland basins suggests that this arc-basin is allocthonous to its current position, and was still active by ca. 82Ma. The geological features are comparable to other arc remnants found in northeastern Colombia and the Netherland Antilles. The geochemical and U/Pb detrital signatures from the metasedimentary rocks suggest that this tectonic domain was already in proximity to the continental margin, in a configuration similar to the modern Antilles or the Kermadec arc in the Pacific. The older continental detritus were derived from the ongoing Andean uplift feeding the intra-oceanic tectonic environment. Cross-cutting relations with granitoids and metamorphic ages suggest that metamorphism was completed by ca. 65Ma. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Barrera D.F.,Federal University of Bahia | Pestana R.C.,Federal University of Bahia | Vivas F.A.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo
Journal of Seismic Exploration | Year: 2013

In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of wave equations with anisotropy in the imaging of seismic data, due to the need to improve exploration and seismic data processing. Laboratory studies have indicated with convincing evidence that thin layers of shale introduces a polar anisotropy in the medium, which depends on the inclination of the layers with respect to an axis of symmetry. If the effect of anisotropy is not taken into account in the imaging procedure, the migrated section will present mispositioned reflectors. To incorporate the effects of anisotropy in the seismic imaging, many migration algorithms based on the ray theory and on the solution of the wave equation, have been adapted from the isotropic case. Therefore, conventional methods of migration, including the reverse time migration, are prone to errors with some kinds of anisotropy in the medium, thus producing low resolution images and seismic mispositioned reflectors. Consequently, to produce images used to delineate reservoirs, for example, methods of migration that take into account the anisotropy of the medium must be implemented. In this work we derive P-wave equations for TTI media starting from the exact dispersion equation for TTI media proposed by Tsvankin (1996). These new dispersion equations are valid for δ > ε (Thomsen's parameters) and strong anisotropy. Using the new equations for pure P-wave for TTI media, we migrated the BP-TTI synthetic data set with RTM technique using the rapid expansion method (REM). It significantly improved the migrations sections when compared with migrations that did not take into account the anisotropy of the medium. © 2013 Geophysical Press Ltd.


Cardona A.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Cardona A.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo | Valencia V.A.,Washington State University | Bayona G.,Corporacion Geologica Ares | And 7 more authors.
Terra Nova | Year: 2011

The timing of orogeny in the northern Andes and the mechanism driving it are still debated. We have studied the age, composition and provenance of granitoids and sandstones of the Santa Marta Massif and Rancheria Basin, northern Colombia, to relate deep-seated and surface tectonic processes attending the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene history of the northern Andes. Our results indicate the development of five tectonic episodes: (1) collision of northwestern South America with a 92-80 Ma Caribbean arc (70 Ma); (2) late-collisional to early-subduction metamorphism and magmatism (65 Ma); (3) distal accumulation of a thick siliciclastic sequence (60-58 Ma); (4) renewed arc magmatism (58-50 Ma); and (5) magmatic quiescence and block uplift (post-50 Ma). The first episodes are related to the onset of subduction, and the last episode is related to shallow subduction and oblique convergence. Similar events in Colombia and Ecuador reveal that the Late Cretaceous-Eocene orogeny of the northern Andes was influenced by the collision and subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Bayona G.,Corporacion Geologica ARES | Cardona A.,Corporacion Geologica ARES | Cardona A.,National University of Colombia | Jaramillo C.,Corporacion Geologica ARES | And 8 more authors.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2012

Recognition of magmatic events in polyphase arc-continent collision margin is critical for proper tectonic reconstructions that trace the short and changing nature of the configuration of the continental margin. Additionally, the recognition of the origin of detrital volcanic zircons within continental basins becomes a challenge if only distant oceanic and continental magmatic arcs are considered as the only possible source. In this study we report U/Pb zircon ages in isolated plutons that support an early Paleogene magmatic arc that extended ca 700. km along the northern Andean continental margin. Additional detrital zircon Paleogene ages (45-65. Ma), from Paleocene-lower Eocene continental sandstones and volcaniclastic rocks in 19 localities from Colombian and Venezuela Andean basins, indicate that volcanic detritus were supplied from a magmatic arc striking parallel to the subduction zone and also show the existence of intraplate magmatism extending more than 400. km inland.The wide distribution of this Early Paleogene magmatism along the northern South America margin is related to subduction of the buoyant Caribbean plate; the relative short period of magmatism (< 10. myr) and sudden stop in early middle Eocene time may be related to the difficulty of the thick plateau to subduct and the relative strike-slip movement of the South America and Caribbean plates since middle Eocene due to northward migration of those plates. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Almendral A.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo | Almendral A.,Norwegian Computing Center | Robles W.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo | Parra M.,Instituto Colombiano Del Petroleo | And 4 more authors.
AAPG Bulletin | Year: 2015

FetKin is a C++ program for forward modeling thermochrono-logical ages on a two-dimensional geological cross section. Modeled ages for various thermochronometers are computed from time-temperature histories that result from coupling the modeled kinematics of deformation obtained from commercial software for balanced reconstructions (2DMove) and a finite element computation of temperatures. Additional capabilities include the ability to accommodate (1) a smooth change of topological relief; (2) the influence of variation in rock physical properties; and (3) multikinetic modeling of fission-track ages and length distributions, as well as apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar systems. A joint first-order analysis of the impact of erosion parameters and material properties improves age predictions and allows for a more complete analysis of observed cooling ages based on their modeled thermal histories. Thus, this paper presents a new software tool that has been developed as a basic support for the methodological approach used to build the kinematic restorations shown in this volume, which are the basic input for petroleum systems modeling and prediction in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera and Llanos foothills basin. Copyright ©2015. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.


Saavedra J.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo | Merino L.,Industrial University of Santander | Kafarov V.,Industrial University of Santander
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2013

Companies that require gaseous fuel that burns in their processes, show concern for the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases, at present, 69 % of the greenhouse gases produced by the burning of the refining processes and petrochemicals, which also generated a significant environmental impact, it shows a good performance as the world leader in the field of sustainability, as measured by the Dow Jones sustainability index, which evaluates companies in economic, environmental and social. The parameters and operating conditions for the ovens are affected by the composition of fuel gas, which may be a mixture of natural gas and process gas containing methane, ethane, propane and hydrogen. The process instability due to changes in gas composition represents a risk to industrial safety, environmental issues and structural damage due to high temperatures. In order to study this problem, the baseline emission of CO 2 generated was collected in ovens; CO2 historical data of the process is analyzed and the relationship established with calorific value which depended on the composition of the gas. The statistical analysis of the results and the simulation of the combustion process, determined that CO 2 values have a tendency to increase when using fuels of high calorific value, which should regulate the use of mixtures containing compounds such as ethane and ethylene. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Saavedra J.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo | Merino L.,Industrial University of Santander | Kafarov V.,Industrial University of Santander
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2013

The combustion becomes the mechanism to generate energy in industrial equipment such as furnaces and boilers. In terms of trends, progress and processes designed and implemented seek to increase energy efficiency, reduce pollution emissions, increase productivity and develop processes for burning gas of variable chemical composition. The recent research focuses on the implementation of operational control systems to minimize errors in operation and reducing the risks of industrial accidents. In this sense, the eco-efficiency contributes to sustainable development and competitiveness. This concept means adding more value to products and services, using less raw materials, producing less pollution through environmentally and economically efficient procedures and safety process. This paper evaluates the combustion process using fuzzy logic, in finding methods to achieve efficient processes that harmonize with the care of the environment and ensure process safety. The criteria used in the evaluation process were energy efficiency, the amount of CO2 and stack temperature, to obtain indicators that allow the management of eco-efficient process, using approximate reasoning based on fuzzy subsets. Comparing the simulation results with the process historical data, suggest that the index of ecoefficiency calculated describes the performance of the combustion process in furnaces of refinery. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andrés Island, Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the seagrass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The cell densities were generally low if compared with previous studies in other Caribbean sites, ranging from 0 to 836 cells/dry weight. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the Diarrehic Shellfish Poisoning and Ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island.


Escobar F.H.,South Colombian University | Roddriguez M.M.R.,South Colombian University | Silva J.H.C.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo
DYNA (Colombia) | Year: 2012

A linear flow regime is a very important flow regime presented in fractured wells, horizontal wells and long reservoirs. Either pressure-transient analysis or rate-transient analysis may be affected by a linear flow regime. In the case the case of production rate most of the analysis is conducted by decline-curve fitting and little attention has been given to rate-transient analysis. This paper presents the governing equations used for rate-transient analysis in elongated systems and provides examples using the conventional analysis. The methodology allows for the estimation of reservoir permeability, reservoir width and geometrical skin factors. If the test is long enough, reservoir drainage area and well position inside the reservoir can also be determined. The methodology was successfully verified by its application to synthetic cases.

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