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Escobar F.H.,South Colombian University | Roddriguez M.M.R.,South Colombian University | Silva J.H.C.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo
DYNA (Colombia)

A linear flow regime is a very important flow regime presented in fractured wells, horizontal wells and long reservoirs. Either pressure-transient analysis or rate-transient analysis may be affected by a linear flow regime. In the case the case of production rate most of the analysis is conducted by decline-curve fitting and little attention has been given to rate-transient analysis. This paper presents the governing equations used for rate-transient analysis in elongated systems and provides examples using the conventional analysis. The methodology allows for the estimation of reservoir permeability, reservoir width and geometrical skin factors. If the test is long enough, reservoir drainage area and well position inside the reservoir can also be determined. The methodology was successfully verified by its application to synthetic cases. Source

Barrera D.F.,Federal University of Bahia | Pestana R.C.,Federal University of Bahia | Vivas F.A.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo
Journal of Seismic Exploration

In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of wave equations with anisotropy in the imaging of seismic data, due to the need to improve exploration and seismic data processing. Laboratory studies have indicated with convincing evidence that thin layers of shale introduces a polar anisotropy in the medium, which depends on the inclination of the layers with respect to an axis of symmetry. If the effect of anisotropy is not taken into account in the imaging procedure, the migrated section will present mispositioned reflectors. To incorporate the effects of anisotropy in the seismic imaging, many migration algorithms based on the ray theory and on the solution of the wave equation, have been adapted from the isotropic case. Therefore, conventional methods of migration, including the reverse time migration, are prone to errors with some kinds of anisotropy in the medium, thus producing low resolution images and seismic mispositioned reflectors. Consequently, to produce images used to delineate reservoirs, for example, methods of migration that take into account the anisotropy of the medium must be implemented. In this work we derive P-wave equations for TTI media starting from the exact dispersion equation for TTI media proposed by Tsvankin (1996). These new dispersion equations are valid for δ > ε (Thomsen's parameters) and strong anisotropy. Using the new equations for pure P-wave for TTI media, we migrated the BP-TTI synthetic data set with RTM technique using the rapid expansion method (REM). It significantly improved the migrations sections when compared with migrations that did not take into account the anisotropy of the medium. © 2013 Geophysical Press Ltd. Source

In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andrés Island, Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the seagrass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The cell densities were generally low if compared with previous studies in other Caribbean sites, ranging from 0 to 836 cells/dry weight. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the Diarrehic Shellfish Poisoning and Ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island. Source

Bayona G.,Corporacion Geologica Ares | Cardona A.,Corporacion Geologica Ares | Cardona A.,National University of Colombia | Jaramillo C.,Corporacion Geologica Ares | And 8 more authors.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters

Recognition of magmatic events in polyphase arc-continent collision margin is critical for proper tectonic reconstructions that trace the short and changing nature of the configuration of the continental margin. Additionally, the recognition of the origin of detrital volcanic zircons within continental basins becomes a challenge if only distant oceanic and continental magmatic arcs are considered as the only possible source. In this study we report U/Pb zircon ages in isolated plutons that support an early Paleogene magmatic arc that extended ca 700. km along the northern Andean continental margin. Additional detrital zircon Paleogene ages (45-65. Ma), from Paleocene-lower Eocene continental sandstones and volcaniclastic rocks in 19 localities from Colombian and Venezuela Andean basins, indicate that volcanic detritus were supplied from a magmatic arc striking parallel to the subduction zone and also show the existence of intraplate magmatism extending more than 400. km inland.The wide distribution of this Early Paleogene magmatism along the northern South America margin is related to subduction of the buoyant Caribbean plate; the relative short period of magmatism (< 10. myr) and sudden stop in early middle Eocene time may be related to the difficulty of the thick plateau to subduct and the relative strike-slip movement of the South America and Caribbean plates since middle Eocene due to northward migration of those plates. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Saavedra J.,Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo | Merino L.,Industrial University of Santander | Kafarov V.,Industrial University of Santander
Chemical Engineering Transactions

The combustion becomes the mechanism to generate energy in industrial equipment such as furnaces and boilers. In terms of trends, progress and processes designed and implemented seek to increase energy efficiency, reduce pollution emissions, increase productivity and develop processes for burning gas of variable chemical composition. The recent research focuses on the implementation of operational control systems to minimize errors in operation and reducing the risks of industrial accidents. In this sense, the eco-efficiency contributes to sustainable development and competitiveness. This concept means adding more value to products and services, using less raw materials, producing less pollution through environmentally and economically efficient procedures and safety process. This paper evaluates the combustion process using fuzzy logic, in finding methods to achieve efficient processes that harmonize with the care of the environment and ensure process safety. The criteria used in the evaluation process were energy efficiency, the amount of CO2 and stack temperature, to obtain indicators that allow the management of eco-efficient process, using approximate reasoning based on fuzzy subsets. Comparing the simulation results with the process historical data, suggest that the index of ecoefficiency calculated describes the performance of the combustion process in furnaces of refinery. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l. Source

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