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Sampaio A.B.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade | Scariot A.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
Revista Arvore | Year: 2011

The effects of edge distance on the structure, composition and diversity of tree community, considering individuals of all size classes, were studied in a well-preserved fragment of deciduous dry forest in northeastern Goiás state, Brazil. Plots were systematically established at six distances (0, 40, 80, 160, 280 and 400 m) from the edge, over 10 orthogonal transects on the forest-pasture edge. It was sampled 602 adult individuals/ha, 8,927 saplings/ha and 54,167 seedlings/ha distributed in 58 species. Although the composition of seedlings and adult individuals varied significantly over the forest-pasture gradient, the variation explained by edge distance was below 4%. Among parameters of community structure and tested diversity indexes, there was significant variation only for diversity of seedlings and height of adult trees among forest-pasture edge distances. The dry forest fragment showed only a slight edge effect on the evaluated tree community parameters. This conclusion contrasts with findings from studies on tropical rain forests which indicate sharp differences between edge and interior tree communities in forest fragments.

Marini-Filho O.J.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Marini-Filho O.J.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade | Martins R.P.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2010

Organisms must possess good dispersal ability to persist in fragmented landscapes, as extinction in habitat patches is frequent and patches must be re-colonised to keep viable metapopulations. Thus, metapopulation maintenance is dependent on patch size and distance, although these affect species differently. In order to evaluate the ability of Nymphalid butterfly species to live in naturally fragmented small forest fragments we marked and released 3,415 butterflies in 16 of these areas separated in two networks at the Serra da Canastra National Park (PNSC), south-eastern Brazil. Subsequent recaptures in different forest fragments enabled us to assess the dispersal rates and distances for several Nymphalid species. Seventeen butterflies from 11 out of the 50 species captured were directly observed to disperse from 500 m to 870 m. Dispersal rates varied between 1 and 7% of the marked individuals and were directly correlated to the mean forewing length of each butterfly species population. The connectivity of the forest fragments through creeks appear to facilitate butterfly dispersal among fragments within micro-basins, as only one out of 50 dispersing individuals was observed to fly from one micro-basin to the other. Several species had viable populations in the small-fragment network. The distance between fragments is crucial as the coarser fragment network was unlikely to sustain viable populations of most of the species. The protection of large forest fragments located outside of the PNSC may be necessary to promote colonization of the smaller forest fragments inside the Park. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Carriero M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Adriano E.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Adriano E.A.,University of Campinas | Silva M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. © 2013 Carriero et al.

Lousada J.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Borba E.L.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Ribeiro K.T.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade | Ribeiro L.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Lovato M.B.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Genetica | Year: 2011

The Espinhaço Range, in eastern Brazil, has a peculiar landscape that has influenced the vegetation pattern of the region because of its valleys, canyons, ranges and disjunct rock outcrops found at high elevations. In this region, the vegetation type known as campos rupestres (rupestrian fields), which occurs in the disjunct outcrops, has high levels of species richness and endemism. Vellozia gigantea, a 6-m tall dracenoid monocot, is a vulnerable species endemic to this vegetation and has a narrow distribution that extends approximately 27 km. This region is located in a disturbed area, where populations are divided into three geographical groups, separated by a canyon and a valley. For this study, we used ISSR markers to measure the genetic diversity of the species and test the hypothesis that the canyon and the valley constitute geographical barriers to gene flow in V. gigantea. Nine populations and 173 individuals were analyzed using nine ISSR primers, which produced 89 fragments. In spite of being a vulnerable species with a narrow distribution, the populations of V. gigantea have high genetic diversity (mean percentage of polymorphic loci = 56.6%; mean Shannon's index of diversity = 0.278; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.183). Genetic divergence among populations was high (ΦST = 0.28), and principal coordinate, neighborjoining and Bayesian analyses showed that only the canyon may constitute a partial barrier to gene flow in this species. Groups of populations separated by the canyon should be managed separately because they contain different gene pools. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mello T.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Mello T.J.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade | Adalardodeoliveira A.,University of Sao Paulo
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. © 2016 Mello, Oliveira. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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