Gerhardinger L.C.,Associacao de Estudos Costeiros e Marinhos ECOMAR NGO |
Gerhardinger L.C.,Vale do Itajai University |
Godoy E.A.S.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade |
Jones P.J.S.,University College London |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Management | Year: 2011
This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Carriero M.M.,University of Sao Paulo |
Adriano E.A.,University of Sao Paulo |
Adriano E.A.,University of Campinas |
Silva M.M.,University of Sao Paulo |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. © 2013 Carriero et al.
Mello T.J.,University of Sao Paulo |
Mello T.J.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade |
Adalardodeoliveira A.,University of Sao Paulo
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. © 2016 Mello, Oliveira. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Pais M.P.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade |
Varanda E.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Neotropical Entomology | Year: 2010
The use of arthropods for monitoring habitat changes has grown widely in the last decades. In Brazil, however, most of the studies in restored areas have involved only vegetation changes. The present study aimed at investigating recolonization patterns of epigeic arthropods in recently restored sites of semideciduous forests in southeastern Brazil. We compared the community structure of adjoining sites 5, 17, 29 and 36 months old with that at a nearby forest remnant (reference site). We also determined the most abundant species and looked for ecological indicator species of each site age. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps, and their assemblages were described and compared with multi- and univariate statistical methods. Species abundance and richness equivalent to the reference site were reached at five months after planting, however species composition was very distinctive not only in relation to the reference site, but also among restored sites. Some of the main species found in this restoration stage are common in agroecosystems or cerrado vegetation. Nevertheless, there was a clear trend of arthropod fauna in restored sites moving toward the fauna in the forest remnant over time. Our results also highlighted ants and termites because of their abundance and ants because of their high value as ecological indicators of restoration age.
Zortea M.,Federal University of Goais |
de Brito B.F.A.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade
Zoologia | Year: 2010
The thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818) is a species endemic to the extremely disturbed and fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest. Little is known about its natural history. We analyzed the preferences of porcupine diurnal roost and home range, based on one relocated adult male that was radio-monitored during 1999. The individual was captured in the urban zone of Santa Teresa, Brazil, and relocated to a forest reserve 6 km from the capture site. The thin-spined porcupine feeds only on leaves. It prefers intermediate forest stratum (6-15 m of height) for roosting during daytime, generally using inclined branches with a diameter of 2 to 5 cm. Most observations indicated a prehensile tail position. Home range was relatively large (15.81 ha) for an arboreal animal of this size and new areas were still being explored after five months of monitoring. © Sociedade Brasileria de Zoologia.
Edge effect on tree diversity, composition and structure in a deciduous dry forest in central Brazil [Efeito De Borda Na Diversidade, Composição E Estrutura Da Comunidade Arbórea Em Uma Floresta Estacional Decidual No Brasil Central]
Sampaio A.B.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade |
Scariot A.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária
Revista Arvore | Year: 2011
The effects of edge distance on the structure, composition and diversity of tree community, considering individuals of all size classes, were studied in a well-preserved fragment of deciduous dry forest in northeastern Goiás state, Brazil. Plots were systematically established at six distances (0, 40, 80, 160, 280 and 400 m) from the edge, over 10 orthogonal transects on the forest-pasture edge. It was sampled 602 adult individuals/ha, 8,927 saplings/ha and 54,167 seedlings/ha distributed in 58 species. Although the composition of seedlings and adult individuals varied significantly over the forest-pasture gradient, the variation explained by edge distance was below 4%. Among parameters of community structure and tested diversity indexes, there was significant variation only for diversity of seedlings and height of adult trees among forest-pasture edge distances. The dry forest fragment showed only a slight edge effect on the evaluated tree community parameters. This conclusion contrasts with findings from studies on tropical rain forests which indicate sharp differences between edge and interior tree communities in forest fragments.
Marini-Filho O.J.,Federal University of Minas Gerais |
Marini-Filho O.J.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade |
Martins R.P.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2010
Organisms must possess good dispersal ability to persist in fragmented landscapes, as extinction in habitat patches is frequent and patches must be re-colonised to keep viable metapopulations. Thus, metapopulation maintenance is dependent on patch size and distance, although these affect species differently. In order to evaluate the ability of Nymphalid butterfly species to live in naturally fragmented small forest fragments we marked and released 3,415 butterflies in 16 of these areas separated in two networks at the Serra da Canastra National Park (PNSC), south-eastern Brazil. Subsequent recaptures in different forest fragments enabled us to assess the dispersal rates and distances for several Nymphalid species. Seventeen butterflies from 11 out of the 50 species captured were directly observed to disperse from 500 m to 870 m. Dispersal rates varied between 1 and 7% of the marked individuals and were directly correlated to the mean forewing length of each butterfly species population. The connectivity of the forest fragments through creeks appear to facilitate butterfly dispersal among fragments within micro-basins, as only one out of 50 dispersing individuals was observed to fly from one micro-basin to the other. Several species had viable populations in the small-fragment network. The distance between fragments is crucial as the coarser fragment network was unlikely to sustain viable populations of most of the species. The protection of large forest fragments located outside of the PNSC may be necessary to promote colonization of the smaller forest fragments inside the Park. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Genetic structure and variability of the endemic and vulnerable Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) associated with the landscape in the Espinhaço Range, in southeastern Brazil: Implications for conservation
Lousada J.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais |
Borba E.L.,Federal University of Minas Gerais |
Ribeiro K.T.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade |
Ribeiro L.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais |
Lovato M.B.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Genetica | Year: 2011
The Espinhaço Range, in eastern Brazil, has a peculiar landscape that has influenced the vegetation pattern of the region because of its valleys, canyons, ranges and disjunct rock outcrops found at high elevations. In this region, the vegetation type known as campos rupestres (rupestrian fields), which occurs in the disjunct outcrops, has high levels of species richness and endemism. Vellozia gigantea, a 6-m tall dracenoid monocot, is a vulnerable species endemic to this vegetation and has a narrow distribution that extends approximately 27 km. This region is located in a disturbed area, where populations are divided into three geographical groups, separated by a canyon and a valley. For this study, we used ISSR markers to measure the genetic diversity of the species and test the hypothesis that the canyon and the valley constitute geographical barriers to gene flow in V. gigantea. Nine populations and 173 individuals were analyzed using nine ISSR primers, which produced 89 fragments. In spite of being a vulnerable species with a narrow distribution, the populations of V. gigantea have high genetic diversity (mean percentage of polymorphic loci = 56.6%; mean Shannon's index of diversity = 0.278; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.183). Genetic divergence among populations was high (ΦST = 0.28), and principal coordinate, neighborjoining and Bayesian analyses showed that only the canyon may constitute a partial barrier to gene flow in this species. Groups of populations separated by the canyon should be managed separately because they contain different gene pools. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Potential impacts of changes to Brazilian forest code in campos rupestres and campos de altitude [Impactos potenciais das alterações no código florestal sobre a vegetação de campos rupestres e campos de altitude]
Ribeiro K.T.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade |
Freitas L.,Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2010
The Brazilian campos rupestres and campos de altitude are characterized by mosaics of vegetation types and are better represented above 900 m in the Espinhaço Range and above 1500-2000 m in the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira. They bear high species richness at local and regional scales and numerous relicts and endemisms. These montane refuges, which are of particular interest to conservation in various ways, such as recharge and water regulation, control of erosion and sedimentation, biological singularity and recreational and spiritual values, are facing various threats such as erosion and soil instability, urban and agriculture sprawl, fires, removal of ornamental plants and mining. Moreover, these refuges are among the most vulnerable Brazilian ecosystems to global climate change, because the simple fact that with increasing temperature there is no possibility to migrate to higher altitudes. This paper discusses the potential impacts of the proposed new Brazilian Forest Code, currently under discussion in the Congress, for the conservation of biodiversity in these environments. Particularly we analyze the consequences of the removal of areas above 1800 m and on the hill tops as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), the reducing on the minimum width of the riparian vegetation and the exemption to smallholders of the conservation of native vegetation on their lands ("Legal Reserves"). Such proposals seem to assume that there is great individual injury on behalf of a very diffuse collective benefit, but do not consider the direct benefits of the current instruments of the Code to rural land owners. The losses of biodiversity and ecosystem services (e.g., water supply, presence of pollinators, natural pest control and timber and non-wood resources) with the conversion of habitat that may result from those changes are disproportionate to the potential economic benefit. The instruments proposed on the new Code, ultimately, lead to a model of space occupation with strong contrasts, it means, fully protected areas, such as parks and biological reserves, alternated with extensive areas devoid of vegetation except thin riparian forests. Such a scenario is detrimental to the conservation of biodiversity and for agricultural production, especially to smallholders, who benefit directly from environmental services.
Valadao R.M.,Instituto Chico Mendes Of Conservacao Da Biodiversidade
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2012
There are 1801 bird species in Brazil and 856 of those occur in Cerrado. This Biome is the largest, most distinctive and the richest Savanna in the world and it is probably the world's most endangered tropical Savanna, becoming a Hotspot and priority area for biodiversity conservation. Ecological Station Serra das Araras (EESA) occupies an area of 28.700 hectares of Cerrado, located in the Southwest of the State of Mato Grosso. It is part of the Provincia Serrana, a 400 km long and 40 km large mountain corridor connecting the Amazonian and Pantanal Biomes. The bird community of EESA was sampled monthly from May 2006 through December 2007. We placed a 500 m transect in each of five vegetation types. Each transect was walked once a month for 4 hours starting at sunrise and for 2 hours starting at sunset. Total sampling effort was 600 hours, comprising 80 daylight hours and 40 evening hours per transect/habitat. The list of birds of ESSA has 431 bird species, including 13 endemic birds of Cerrado and 7 threatened species in Brazil. Of these, 396 were recorded during this sampling effort, 29 out the sampling effort and six species were not registered in this study, although listed in studies conducted at EESA between 1986 and 1988. In the semi deciduous forest were recorded 150 species of birds, 256 species in riparian forest, 218 species in cerradão, 206 in cerrado sensu strict and 176 in parquet cerrado. Data analysis splitted the phytophysiognomies in two groups, the savanna (cerrado sensu strict and parque cerrado) and forested (gallery forest, cerradão and semi deciduous forest) bird communities. EESA bird richness is high compared with other areas of Cerrado. Perhaps the environmental heterogeneity of this protected area, with varied topography and vegetation is the reason for this larger species number. Along with the number of bird species, the presence of endemic and endangered species reinforces the importance of EESA for the conservation of this group.