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De Borba L.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR | Delfraro A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Dos Santos C.N.D.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR
BMJ Case Reports | Year: 2013

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease, transmitted to humans by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols from rodent excreta. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data confirmed a fatal HPS case and an asymptomatic infection in a household contact, both caused by Araucaria hantavirus, which has previously been found only in patients with HPS. This is the first report of asymptomatic infection related to a pathogenic hantavirus genotype, highlighting the need for additional studies on characterisation of viral and genetic mechanisms associated with this disease.


Kondo M.Y.,University of Sao Paulo | Oliveira L.C.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Okamoto D.N.,University of Sao Paulo | de Araujo M.R.T.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2011

Here we report the hydrolytic behavior of recombinant YFV NS2B/NS3 protease against FRET substrates mimicking the prime and non-prime region of the natural polyprotein cleavage sites. While the P2-P'1 motif is the main factor associated with the catalytic efficiency of Dengue (DV) and West Nile Virus (WNV) protease, we show that the k cat/K m of YFV NS2B/NS3 varied by more than two orders of magnitude, despite the presence of the same motif in all natural substrates. The catalytic significance of this homogeneity - a unique feature among worldwide prominent flavivirus - was kinetically analyzed using FRET peptides containing all possible combinations of two and three basic amino acids in tandem, and Arg and Lys residues produced distinct effects on k cat/K m. The parallel of our data with those obtained in vivo by Chambers et al. (1991) restrains the idea that these sites co-evolved with the NS2B/NS3 protease to promote highly efficient hydrolysis and supports the notion that secondary substrate interaction distant from cleavage sites are the main factor associated with the different hydrolytic rates on YFV NS2B-NS3pro natural substrates. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR and University of Sao Paulo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular and biochemical parasitology | Year: 2016

The histone H4 from Trypanosomatids diverged from other eukaryotes in the N-terminus, a region that undergoes post-translation modifications involved in the control of gene expression, DNA replication, and chromatin assembly. Nonetheless, the N-terminus of Trypanosoma cruzi histone H4 is mainly acetylated at lysine 4. The lysines 10 and 14 are also acetylated, although at less extent, increasing during the S-phase or after DNA damage, which suggests a regulatory function. Here, we investigated the roles of these acetylations by expressing non-acetylated forms of histone H4 in T. cruzi. We found that histone H4 containing arginines at positions 10 or 14, to prevent acetylation were transported to the nucleus and inserted into the chromatin. However, their presence, even at low levels, interfered with DNA replication and transcription, causing a significant growth arrest of the cells. The absence of acetylation also increased the amount of soluble endogenous histones H3 and H4 and affected the interaction with Asf1, a histone chaperone. Therefore, acetylation of lysines 10 and 14 of the histone H4 in trypanosomes could be required for chromatin assembly and/or remodeling required for transcription and replication.


de Borba L.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR | Delfraro A.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR | Raboni S.M.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR | dos Santos C.N.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR
BMJ case reports | Year: 2013

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease, transmitted to humans by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols from rodent excreta. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data confirmed a fatal HPS case and an asymptomatic infection in a household contact, both caused by Araucaria hantavirus, which has previously been found only in patients with HPS. This is the first report of asymptomatic infection related to a pathogenic hantavirus genotype, highlighting the need for additional studies on characterisation of viral and genetic mechanisms associated with this disease.


de Borba L.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR
BMJ case reports | Year: 2013

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease, transmitted to humans by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols from rodent excreta. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data confirmed a fatal HPS case and an asymptomatic infection in a household contact, both caused by Araucaria hantavirus, which has previously been found only in patients with HPS. This is the first report of asymptomatic infection related to a pathogenic hantavirus genotype, highlighting the need for additional studies on characterisation of viral and genetic mechanisms associated with this disease.


Batista C.M.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR | Kessler R.L.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR | Eger I.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR | Eger I.,State University of Ponta Grossa | Soares M.J.,Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (the etiologic agent of Chagas disease) internalize and store extracellular macromolecules in lysosome-related organelles (LROs) called reservosomes, which are positive for the cysteine protease cruzipain. Despite the importance of endocytosis for cell proliferation, macromolecule internalization remains poorly understood in the most clinically relevant proliferative form, the intracellular amastigotes found in mammalian hosts. The main obstacle was the lack of a simple method to isolate viable intracellular amastigotes from host cells. In this work we describe the fast and efficient isolation of viable intracellular amastigotes by nitrogen decompression (cavitation), which allowed the analysis of amastigote endocytosis, with direct visualization of internalized cargo inside the cells. The method routinely yielded 5x107 amastigotes - with typical shape and positive for the amastigote marker Ssp4 - from 5x106 infected Vero cells (48h post-infection). We could visualize the endocytosis of fluorescently-labeled transferrin and albumin by isolated intracellular amastigotes using immunofluorescence microscopy; however, only transferrin endocytosis was detected by flow cytometry (and was also analyzed by western blotting), suggesting that amastigotes internalized relatively low levels of albumin. Transferrin binding to the surface of amastigotes (at 4°C) and its uptake (at 37°C) were confirmed by binding dissociation assays using acetic acid. Importantly, both transferrin and albumin colocalized with cruzipain in amastigote LROs. Our data show that isolated T. cruzi intracellular amastigotes actively ingest macromolecules from the environment and store them in cruzipain-positive LROs functionally related to epimastigote reservosomes. © 2015 Batista et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Virales Humanas Dr Jimaiztegui and Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease | Year: 2016

Hantaviruses are etiologic agents of a zoonotic disease transmitted mainly from wild rodents to humans, causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Eurasia and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in the Americas (HCPS), reaching a lethality rate of 40% in Brazil. Hantavirus diagnostic and seroprevalence are often based on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Here we propose a rapid test assay able to identify hantavirus antibodies with sensibility and specificity similar to ELISA assays. We analyzed five groups of samples, including healthy human population and small mammals of endemic areas, suspected cases of HCPS, patients with non-related infections and a serum panel from a different geographical region. The test presented good rates of sensibility (87-100%) and specificity (97-100%) for all groups, being a promising tool suitable for both rodent and human hantavirus epidemiological surveys.


PubMed | Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR
Type: | Journal: BMJ case reports | Year: 2013

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease, transmitted to humans by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols from rodent excreta. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data confirmed a fatal HPS case and an asymptomatic infection in a household contact, both caused by Araucaria hantavirus, which has previously been found only in patients with HPS. This is the first report of asymptomatic infection related to a pathogenic hantavirus genotype, highlighting the need for additional studies on characterisation of viral and genetic mechanisms associated with this disease.


PubMed | University of Dundee and Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoa with a significant burden on human health. African and American trypanosomes are causative agents of Nagana and Chagas disease respectively, and speciated about 300million years ago. These parasites have highly distinct life cycles, pathologies, transmission strategies and surface proteomes, being dominated by the variant surface glycoprotein (African) or mucins (American) respectively. In African trypanosomes clathrin-mediated trafficking is responsible for endocytosis and post-Golgi transport, with several mechanistic aspects distinct from higher organisms. Using clathrin light chain (TcCLC) and EpsinR (TcEpsinR) as affinity handles, we identified candidate clathrin-associated proteins (CAPs) in Trypanosoma cruzi; the cohort includes orthologs of many proteins known to mediate vesicle trafficking, but significantly not the AP-2 adaptor complex. Several trypanosome-specific proteins common with African trypanosomes, were also identified. Fluorescence microscopy revealed localisations for TcEpsinR, TcCLC and TcCHC at the posterior region of trypomastigote cells, coincident with the flagellar pocket and Golgi apparatus. These data provide the first systematic analysis of clathrin-mediated trafficking in T. cruzi, allowing comparison between protein cohorts and other trypanosomes and also suggest that clathrin trafficking in at least some life stages of T. cruzi may be AP-2-independent.


PubMed | Instituto Carlos Chagas Fiocruz PR and State University of Ponta Grossa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (the etiologic agent of Chagas disease) internalize and store extracellular macromolecules in lysosome-related organelles (LROs) called reservosomes, which are positive for the cysteine protease cruzipain. Despite the importance of endocytosis for cell proliferation, macromolecule internalization remains poorly understood in the most clinically relevant proliferative form, the intracellular amastigotes found in mammalian hosts. The main obstacle was the lack of a simple method to isolate viable intracellular amastigotes from host cells. In this work we describe the fast and efficient isolation of viable intracellular amastigotes by nitrogen decompression (cavitation), which allowed the analysis of amastigote endocytosis, with direct visualization of internalized cargo inside the cells. The method routinely yielded 5x10(7) amastigotes--with typical shape and positive for the amastigote marker Ssp4--from 5x10(6) infected Vero cells (48 h post-infection). We could visualize the endocytosis of fluorescently-labeled transferrin and albumin by isolated intracellular amastigotes using immunofluorescence microscopy; however, only transferrin endocytosis was detected by flow cytometry (and was also analyzed by western blotting), suggesting that amastigotes internalized relatively low levels of albumin. Transferrin binding to the surface of amastigotes (at 4C) and its uptake (at 37C) were confirmed by binding dissociation assays using acetic acid. Importantly, both transferrin and albumin co-localized with cruzipain in amastigote LROs. Our data show that isolated T. cruzi intracellular amastigotes actively ingest macromolecules from the environment and store them in cruzipain-positive LROs functionally related to epimastigote reservosomes.

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