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Lopes U.P.,Federal University of Vicosa | Zambolim L.,Federal University of Vicosa | Costa H.,Instituto Capixaba Of Pesquisa | Pereira O.L.,Federal University of Vicosa | Finger F.L.,Federal University of Vicosa
Crop Protection | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and chitosan as alternative controls for postharvest rot of strawberries (gray mold) caused by Botrytis cinerea. Chitosan and potassium silicate applications were performed at the preharvest stage using the following treatments: chitosan once a week; potassium silicate once a week; potassium silicate once a week+chitosan once a week; and without application. An additional variable was introduced at postharvest, with one-half of the total fruit harvested from each plot dipped in chitosan and the other half not dipped in chitosan. Potassium silicate alone was not effective for rot control. Fruits from plants that received the chitosan application showed 64% less area under the rot progress curve (AURPC) than fruits from plants that were not treated with chitosan. Harvested fruits that were chitosan dipped showed 48% less AURPC than fruits that were not treated at postharvest. Chitosan application in the field and at postharvest is a promising strategy for the management of postharvest strawberry rot. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

De Souza R.G.,Instituto Capixaba Of Pesquisa | Mirazon Lahr M.,University of Cambridge
Applied Ecology and Environmental Research | Year: 2015

Subsistence links the behavioural and biological dimensions of human adaptability. We perform a cross-cultural investigation over an unpublished database containing approximately 2,700 ethnographic populations. The distribution of those Basic Economies is analysed by Latitude, Temperature and Rainfall. Results show unequal geographic distributions, although the climatic variables are not good discriminators in all cases. Two strategies (Food production with fishing/foraging, and Foraging/fishing) are distinct. The generalist form composed by extensive agriculture, coupled with foraging and fishing, is the most adaptable and widespread form of food acquisition. The exceptions are cold deserts, which foragers/fishers provide the best fit to the marginality concept. © 2015, ALÖKI Kft. Source

Sudre C.P.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Goncalves L.S.A.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Rodrigues R.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Do Amaral Jr. A.T.,State University of Norte Fluminense | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2010

Capsicum species are very important in Brazil because of economic, cultural and biological factors, and the country is considered to be a diversity center for this genus. Collection and maintenance of the genetic diversity in Capsicum are important to avoid genetic erosion. Besides the identification of species, the characterization and evaluation of accessions maintained in gene banks are of fundamental importance. For this purpose, multivariate methods have become an important tool in the classification of conserved genotypes. The objectives of this study were: i) to identify and characterize accessions of the Capsicum spp collection and draw conclusions about the potential use of certain accessions in different production sectors; ii) to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions using the Ward-MLM procedure, and iii) to evaluate the efficiency of the analysis of continuous and categorical data using the Ward-MLM procedure. Fifty-six Capsicum spp accessions were evaluated based on 25 descriptors, 14 of which were morphological and 11 agronomic. Based on the qualitative descriptors, it was possible to identify all species and, together with the agronomic descriptors, genotypes could be indicated with potential for use in various production sectors. Five was determined as the ideal number of groups by the criteria pseudo-F and pseudo-t2. The Ward-MLM procedure allowed the differentiation of the species C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. chinense in separate groups. The Ward-MLM procedure showed some level of efficiency in clustering Capsicum species analyzing morphological and agronomic data simultaneously. ©FUNPEC-RP. Source

The aim of this study was to evaluate mass production, nutrient contents and input of green manures used in the altitude region of Espírito Santo to the implementation of appropriate practice no tillage vegetables under organic management. This study also aimed evaluate the evolution of soil fertility as a consequence of two pre-crop maize and crotalária (February 2009 and October 2009) and two pre-crop oat and white lupine (July 2010 and May 2011). The experiments were carried in the INCAPER's Agroecology Reference Area at Domingos Martins-ES. Treatments consisted of a control (no straw) and three straw production systems: 1) cropping of grasses (oats or corn), 2) cropping legume (crotalária or white lupine) and 3) intercropping of grasses/legumes (corn/crotalária or oat/lupine). In February 2009, the production of green mass system corn and corn/crotalária reached 73.6 and 64.5 t ha-1, respectively. In July 2010, the production of green mass systems lupine and oat/Lupin reached 76.3 and 88.3 t ha-1, respectively. The green manures intercropping proved to be excellent management option for organic systems, because added 811.4; 941.2; 263.5; 78.6; 51.9 kg ha-1 of N, K, Ca, Mg and S, respectively, values those at or above the single pre-cultivation. The effects of pre-cultivation of green manure on soil chemical properties in organic management, except for the contribution of nitrogen, were similar to control in all seasons, because of the base fertilization with organic compost in all treatments, maintaining high fertility rates in the area. Source

Barroso M.V.,Instituto Capixaba Of Pesquisa | de Carvalho C.V.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Antoniassi R.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Cerqueira V.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Aquaculture | Year: 2013

High-quality live food is essential for reducing the frequent high mortality of newly hatched fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) larvae in hatcheries. Copepods, a rich nutrition source, cultivated with the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri and Isochrysis galbana, were evaluated as food for 0-14-day-old larvae. Two experiments were performed using nine 50-L tanks stocked with 2500 embryonated fat snook eggs. Three different dietary (treatments) were tested in triplicate: Experiment 1, Treatment 1 (Control), using rotifers Brachionus rotundiformis (20 mL-1); Treatment 2 (Copepod), larvae were fed with Acartia tonsa (nauplii and copepodits, 0.1 mL-1); and Treatment 3 (Mixed), larvae were fed with A. tonsa (0.05 mL-1) and rotifers (10 mL-1). In Experiment 2 to increase the density of live food, food organisms and the phytoplankton were introduced into the experimental tanks with the embryonated eggs and were stocked: Treatment 1, 20 rotifers mL-1; Treatment 2, 0.5 copepods mL-1; and Treatment 3, 10 rotifers mL-1 and 0.25 copepods mL-1. In Experiment 1, the Mixed Treatment increased significantly the survival rate (16.0%±7.5%) and mean larval weight (0.84±0.05 mg) in relation to the other treatments. In Experiment 2, we observed significant improvements in larval notochord flexion in the Copepod and Mixed Treatment. The essential fatty acid profile of fat snook eggs had a DHA:EPA:ARA ratio of 11.4:2.4:1.0 while larvae in the Mixed and Copepods Treatments had ratios of 2.5:1.9:1.0 and 5.5:1.9:1.0, respectively. We conclude that the survival, development and the relationship between the major fatty acids were improved in treatments with copepods. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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