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Gonzalez M.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Gonzalez V.,University of La Laguna
Analytical Methods | Year: 2010

This work is a review of the analytical strategies dealing with antioxidant phytochemicals in tropical and subtropical fruit by-products. The determination of bioactive compounds encompasses a number of different aspects and the analytical strategy employed depends on the biowaste, analyte and nature of the problem. In general, an analytical strategy involves recovering antioxidant phytochemicals from the sample matrix followed by separation, identification and measurement. For most phytochemicals, the recovery step typically involves extraction using a range of solvents. However, sample handling is often an ignored feature of the analysis. This review highlights the importance of sample preparation in the analysis of phytochemicals from tropical and subtropical fruit biowastes and the problems that can arise during this step. The various procedures are summarized and some typical "case studies" are presented. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Mahouachi J.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Argamasilla R.,Jaume I University | Gomez-Cadenas A.,Jaume I University
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2012

The effects of exogenous foliar glycine betaine (GB) and abscisic acid (ABA) on papaya responses to water stress were investigated under distinct water regimes. Papaya seedlings (Carica papaya L. cultivar "BH-65") were pretreated with GB or ABA and subsequently subjected to consecutive periods of drought, rehydration, and a second period of drought conditions. Results indicated that water stress induced ABA, jasmonic acid (JA), and proline accumulation but did not modify malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. In addition, water deprivation reduced photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, relative water content (RWC), leaf fresh weight, and increased leaf abscission. GB applied prior to drought imposition decreased the impact of water stress on ABA, JA, proline accumulation, leaf water status, growth, and photosynthetic performance. However, ABA-pretreated plants did not show alteration of most of these parameters under water stress conditions when compared with non-pretreated plants except a clear induction of JA accumulation. Taken together, the data suggest that GB may modulate ABA, JA, and proline accumulation through the control of stomatal movement and the high availability of compatible solutes, leading to improvement of leaf water status, growth, and photosynthetic machinery function. In contrast, exogenous ABA did not stimulate papaya physiological responses under drought, but interestingly ABA in combination with drought could induce progressive JA synthesis, unlike drought alone, which induces a transitory JA increase and may trigger endogenous ABA accumulation. The data also suggest that irrespective of the pretreatments, papaya did not suffer oxidative damage. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Dorta E.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Lobo M.G.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Gonzalez M.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was to study the effect of different drying treatments on the antioxidant activity of mango peel and seed. Freeze-drying allowed the peel (when extraction was carried out with ethanol:water) and seed to be stabilised without diminishing their antioxidant activity. In addition, this treatment improved mango peel's antiradical capacity against ABTS•+ (in ethanol:water), as well as the capacity of the seed to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation. Oven-drying at 70 °C (with static or forced air) was the treatment that had the most negative effect on the antioxidant capacity of mango peel (when extraction was carried out with ethanol) and seed. Because the effect of drying methods on the phenol and anthocyanin content of mango peel or seed is related to antioxidant activity (with a moderately strong significant correlation, p < 0.003), it can be concluded that the phenol content of both materials is largely responsible for their antioxidant activity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sauco V.G.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

While the number of mango producing countries, around 100, has not varied much over the last decade, growth has been slow but steady with an output of some 35 million tons in 2008. Although Oceania (mainly Australia) and Europe (Spain) are still minor players, mangoes are being produced in all continents, with Asia leading world production, followed by America and Africa. India, with 13.6 million tons, continues to be the main producer, followed at some distance by China, Indonesia, Thailand, Mexico, Pakistan, Brazil, The Philippines, Bangladesh and Nigeria. Mexico, Brazil, Pakistan, Peru, and India are the leading exporters. With the exception of Asian countries, where consumer preference is oriented towards taste rather than colour, the Floridian cultivars like 'Tommy Atkins', 'Haden', 'Kent', 'Keitt', still dominate the global export market, although the Mexican cultivar 'Ataulfo' is becoming increasingly popular in the US. Prices have remained fairly stable in recent years, except for organic mangoes, which are making headway in international markets, particularly in the USA, EU and Japan. In the absence of important varietal changes or significant new plantings worldwide, improved crop management is most likely the sole factor responsible for production increase, which will probably slow down unless new, higher-yielding cultivars appear and can be extensively planted. © 2015, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


Although the mango is grown mainly in tropical climates, there are significant advantages to cultivating mangoes in the subtropics, where cooler winter temperatures improve flower induction, and both early bearing in younger trees and lower annual growth rates favour high-density planting options. It is not surprising that the best mango yields are obtained in the subtropics with Israel leading the FAO world statistics about mango yield. The reasons that explain these successful results are studied in this paper are the following: climatic factors; genetic considerations and cultural techniques including greenhouse cultivation. .Obviously not all are advantages about mango cultivation in the subtropics. While cold spells can damage vulnerable young trees and sustained low temperatures can provoke alternate bearing phenomena in late season cultivars, the chief disadvantages of cultivating mangoes in the subtropics are the need of avoiding flowering in young trees, the prime cause of premature aging, and the need to control annual flowering so that it coincides with temperatures conducive to good fruit set. Special strategies to control flowering time include the use of giberellic acid to delay the terminal flowering, manual or chemical removal of the terminal flowering and even allowing powdery mildew to destroy the first flowering wave to obtain a second axillary flowering. Other technique regularly practiced for the late cultivar 'Keitt' in the South of Spain, both in the open and under greenhouse, consists in the 'machete' removal at the beginning of the Spring of all terminals produced in the 'on' year and eliminating also the few fruits produced in the 'off' year. This practice allows a higher build-up of carbohydrate reserves for the 'on' year, which gives rise to a biennial production of an excellent crop of fruits with the appropriate size and colour demanded by the market. The cultivation of mangoes in the subtropics is largely based on monoembryonic cultivars, which, due to their cooler area of origin are, in principle, better adapted to subtropical conditions. Efforts of the breeding programmes for subtropical mangoes are also concentrated in these type of mangoes, while the potential of mango rootstocks and also of other Mangifera species for mango cultivation both in the tropics and in the subtropics are still to be explored. Much research has been dedicated to cultural techniques specific for the subtropics with density considerations and training practices deserving special attention. as a consequence of the fact that the reduced number of flushes annually produced favours shorter distances between plants and even the possibility of high density plantings. Greenhouse cultivation - unheated, in many areas of the subtropics - facilitates cultivation of mangoes in the subtropics. The main advantages of greenhouse cultivation includes: i)Shortening of the juvenile period; ii) Protection from adverse climatic conditions, including avoiding sunburn; iii) Increase flowering and fruit set, due to higher diurnal temperatures and increase of foliar surface, which in turn increase photosynthesis; iv) Easier control of irrigation and possibility of obtaining out of season production through imposing water stress; v) Possibilities of extending harvesting season; and vi) Easier control of pests and diseases. Mangoes under greenhouse are also specially adapted to cultivation on trellises which facilitates pest control and harvesting. These cultivation advantages must be off-set against the initial infrastructure costs as well as the obligatory and timely provision of pollinating insects at flowering time. Prior, in-depth economic studies are thus required in order to ensure that the investment will be profitable in the long term.


Dorta E.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Lobo M.G.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Gonzalez M.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG CSIC
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Gonzalez-Montelongo R.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Lobo M.G.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Gonzalez M.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2010

A solvent extraction method was developed to obtain methanolic extracts rich in antioxidants from banana peel. Central composite design "23 + star" and response surface methodology were used in order to optimise the number of extraction steps, extraction temperature and extraction time. The number of extractions was statistically the most significant factor in scavenging activity against both DPPH{radical dot} and ABTS{radical dot}+ radicals and in the inhibition of TBARS formation, while the extraction temperature had an important impact on the capacity to prevent β-carotene bleaching. However, the effect of the extraction time on antioxidant activity was less important. The optimum values of the factors that influence the capacity to scavenge DPPH{radical dot} and ABTS{radical dot}+ radicals or to inhibit β-carotene bleaching were 3 extractions at 25 °C for 0 min in the water bath (the rest of the extraction process included 1 min of high-speed homogenisation and 20 min of centrifugation). Nevertheless, the optimum conditions to obtain extracts that inhibit TBARS formation were 55 °C for 120 min in the water bath with 3 repetitions of the extraction procedure. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sauco V.G.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

While the number of mango producing countries, around 100, has not varied much over the last decade, growth has been slow but steady with an output of some 33 million tons in 2008. Currently, the leading exporters are Mexico, Brazil, Pakistan, Peru, and India. With the exception of Southeast Asia, where consumer preference is oriented towards taste rather than colour, the Floridian cultivars like 'Tommy Atkins', 'Haden', 'Kent', 'Keitt', and 'Irwin' still dominate the global export market, although the Mexican cultivar 'Ataulfo' is becoming increasingly popular in the US. Prices have remained fairly stable in recent years, except for organic mangoes, which are making headway in international markets, particularly in the USA, EU and Japan. In the absence of important varietal changes or significant new plantings worldwide, improved crop management is most likely the sole factor responsible for production increase, which will probably slow down unless new, higher-yielding cultivars appear and can be extensively planted. © ISHS 2013.


Dorta E.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Lobo M.G.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Gonzalez M.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2013

A microwave-assisted extraction procedure was developed to obtain extracts rich in antioxidants from mango seed. Central composite design '25 + star' and response surface methodology were used in order to optimise the extraction factors: the water content in the acetone/water mixture used as extractant, seed weight-to-solvent volume ratio, number of steps, extraction time and pH of water. The results suggest that the extractant composition and the seed weight-to-solvent volume ratio were statistically the most significant factors. The optimum values of the factors that influence the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation (evaluated with the β-carotene bleaching test), scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-free radicals and obtain extracts with high phenolic compound content (tannins and proanthocyanidins) were three steps; the mixture acetone/water (50:50, v/v) as extractant, a seed weight-to-solvent volume ratio of 1:30 (w/v), an extraction time of 0 min in the microwave (the rest of the extraction process includes homogenisation and centrifugation time), and a pH of 8.0. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Gonzalez-Montelongo R.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Gloria Lobo M.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Gonzalez M.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) peel extracts obtained in this work had a high capacity to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH{radical dot}) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS{radical dot}+) free radicals, and they were also good lipid peroxidation inhibitors. Acetone:water extracts were considerably more effective (compared with methanol, ethanol, acetone, water, methanol:water or ethanol:water) at inhibiting the peroxidation of lipids in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system or scavenging free radicals. However, aqueous extracts had a high capacity to protect lipids from oxidation in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test, as well as in the β-carotene bleaching assay. In addition, acetone:water most efficiently extracted all extractable components (54 ± 4%), phenolic compounds (3.3 ± 0.8%), and anthocyanin compounds (434 ± 97 μg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100 g freeze-dried banana peel). Banana peel contained large amounts of dopamine and L-dopa, catecholamines with a significant antioxidant activity. However, ascorbic acid, tocopherols or phytosterols were not detected in the different extracts. The antioxidant activity of banana peel extracts from different cultivars was similar. However, the impact of extraction time or temperature should be studied in greater depth. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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