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de Vasconcellos M.T.L.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Geografia E Estatistica | Silva P.L.N.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Geografia E Estatistica | Pereira A.P.E.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Schilithz A.O.C.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | And 2 more authors.
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2014

This paper describes the sample design for the National Survey into Labor and Birth in Brazil. The hospitals with 500 or more live births in 2007 were stratified into: the five Brazilian regions; state capital or not; and type of governance. They were then selected with probability proportional to the number of live births in 2007. An inverse sampling method was used to select as many days (minimum of 7) as necessary to reach 90 interviews in the hospital. Postnatal women were sampled with equal probability from the set of eligible women, who had entered the hospital in the sampled days. Initial sample weights were computed as the reciprocals of the sample inclusion probabilities and were calibrated to ensure that total estimates of the number of live births from the survey matched the known figures obtained from the Brazilian System of Information on Live Births. For the two telephone follow-up waves (6 and 12 months later), the postnatal woman's response probability was modelled using baseline covariate information in order to adjust the sample weights for nonresponse in each follow-up wave.

Soares W.L.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Geografia E Estatistica
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2012

Objective: To estimate the externalities associated with acute poisoning from pesticides. Methods: The probabilities of acute poisoning were estimated according to characteristics of rural properties and cities in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Information about acute poisoning obtained from the 1998-1999 Harvest Forecast Survey was used. The expected costs with poisoning in these properties were calculated from the sum of medical-hospital expenses and days spent on sick leaves, required for the recovery of intoxicated individuals. A multilevel model was constructed for the analysis. Results: The costs associated with acute poisoning can total up to US$ 149 million for the state of Paraná, i.e. for each dollar spent to purchase pesticides in this state, approximately US$ 1.28 may be spent with the external costs of poisoning. This situation could be changed with the implementation of public policies, such as the adoption of an organic agriculture promotion program in the cities where the social cost with acute poisoning could be reduced by approximately US$ 25 million. Conclusions: Society, especially the populations mainly affected by pesticides, could be benefited by the identification and elimination of the risks of acute intoxication associated with the current model. It is necessary to implement public policies and integrated actions that involve the fields of economics, public health, agronomy, environmental issues, education, and science and technology, among others.

Anjos L.A.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Anjos L.A.,University Federal Flumimense | Wahrlich V.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Wahrlich V.,University Federal Flumimense | Vasconcellos M.T.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Geografia E Estatistica
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective: To measure BMR in a probability sample of adults from an urban city of Brazil and to compare indirectly measured BMR (BMRi) with BMR predicted from different equations. Design: BMR data were obtained by indirect calorimetry and estimated by different predictive equations (Schofield; Harris and Benedict; Henry and Rees). Anthropometric and body composition measures were also obtained. Setting: The Nutrition, Physical Activity and Health Survey (PNAFS), a household survey conducted in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Subjects Representative sample of 529 adults (aged ≥20 years; 339 females) living in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Results Mean BMRi values were 5839·7 (se 73·9) kJ/d and 4758·1 (se 39·5) kJ/d for men and women, respectively. Predicted BMR by all equations was significantly higher (difference between means and 95 % CI did not include zero) than BMRi in both men and women of all ages. Overall bias in BMR (predicted BMR minus BMRi) using the Schofield equations (overestimation of about 20 %) was higher than when using the Henry and Rees equations (13 % and 16 % overestimation for males and females, respectively). The percentage of individuals whose BMR predicted by the Schofield equations fell within 10 % of BMRi was very low (7·8 % and 14·1 % of males and females, respectively). Conclusions: Current available predictive equations of BMR are not adequate to estimate BMR in Brazilians living in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. © The Authors 2013.

Schmid B.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Geografia E Estatistica | da Silva N.N.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: Estimate the number of live births and, therefore, underreporting of live births. METHODS: The databases of the Live Birth Information System and the Civil Registry of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, from the second and third trimesters of 2006 in Sergipe state (Northeastern Brazil) were paired by deterministic linkage based on the number of the Live Birth Declaration. The geographic disaggregation utilized was mother's microregion of residence. Huggins closed population models were used to estimate the capture probabilities for each database and the total live births during the period, within each geographic subdivision. MARK® software was used for the estimates. RESULTS: Underregistration during the period studied was 19.3%. Application of the capture-recapture method to estimate underregistration of live births is possible, including for geographic disaggregations smaller than a state. The deterministic linkage was impaired in four microregions, due to non-inclusion of the Live Birth Declaration number in the database of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Maternal age, a heterogeneity characteristic in the population of live births, affected the probability of capture by the civil registry. CONCLUSIONS: Capture-recapture was a viable method to estimate the underregistration of live births.

de Vasconcellos M.B.,Federal University of Fluminense | dos Anjos L.A.,Federal University of Fluminense | de Vasconcellos M.T.L.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Geografia E Estatistica
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status, sedentary behavior (TV, computer, and videogame time and screen time as the sum of these first three) and physical activity using a questionnaire with youth (10 to 18 years of age) enrolled in public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Anthropometry (body mass and stature), sedentary behavior, and information on physical activity were obtained in a probability sample of 10 to 18 year-old students (n = 328; 108 boys) stratified by school and selected in two stages (classes and students). Low height for age did not appear as a problem, but 25.7% of the youth presented excess weight (18% overweight and 7.7% obese). Total screen time did not differ between the sexes, but boys spent more time playing videogames than girls, regardless of age, while girls watched more TV. Boys spent twice as much time as girls of all ages in physical activity (three times more in the ≥ 14 year-old group). Screen time was significantly associated with excess weight. In conclusion, public school youth in Niterói show high prevalence rates of excess weight associated with inadequate lifestyle.

Ligeiro R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Hughes R.M.,Oregon State University | Kaufmann P.R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | MacEdo D.R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 6 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2013

Most studies dealing with the use of ecological indicators and other applied ecological research rely on some definition or concept of what constitutes least-, intermediate- and most-disturbed condition. Currently, most rigorous methodologies designed to define those conditions are suited to large spatial extents (nations, ecoregions) and many sites (hundreds to thousands). The objective of this study was to describe a methodology to quantitatively define a disturbance gradient for 40 sites in each of two small southeastern Brazil river basins. The assessment of anthropogenic disturbance experienced by each site was based solely on measurements strictly related to the intensity and extent of anthropogenic pressures. We calculated two indices: one concerned site-scale pressures and the other catchment-scale pressures. We combined those two indices into a single integrated disturbance index (IDI) because disturbances operating at both scales affect stream biota. The local- and catchment-scale disturbance indices were weakly correlated in the two basins (r = 0.21 and 0.35) and both significantly (p < 0.05) reduced site EPT (insect orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) richness. The IDI also performed well in explaining EPT richness in the basin that presented the stronger disturbance gradient (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.001). Natural habitat variability was assessed as a second source of variation in EPT richness. Stream size and microhabitats were the key habitat characteristics not related to disturbances that enhanced the explanation of EPT richness over that attributed to the IDI. In both basins the IDI plus habitat metrics together explained around 50% of EPT richness variation. In the basin with the weaker disturbance gradient, natural habitat explained more variation in EPT richness than did the IDI, a result that has implications for biomonitoring studies. We conclude that quantitatively defined disturbance gradients offer a reliable and comprehensive characterization of anthropogenic pressure that integrates data from different spatial scales. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

dos Anjos L.A.,Federal University of Fluminense | Barbosa T.B.C.,Federal University of Fluminense | Wahrlich V.,Federal University of Fluminense | de Vasconcellos M.T.L.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Geografia E Estatistica
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2012

The current study aimed to assess patterns of typical daily physical activity in a probability sample (N = 1,689) of adults in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, using 24-hour recall. The sample was designed in three stages (census enumeration area - CEA, household within the CEA, and an adult selected with equal probability among all eligible adults in the household). Physical activities were classified as light, moderate, or vigorous and grouped in household chores, occupational, leisure-time, and commuting. Men performed more moderate and vigorous activities during significantly more time (91.2 ± 5.6 and 8.2 ± 1.4 minutes, respectively; mean ± SD) as compared to women (68.5 ± 2.7 and 2.9 ± 0.4 minutes, respectively). The proportions of adults that reached the recommended 30 minutes of moderate/vigorous physical activity per day were 63.8% (men) and 55.9% (women). Household chores for women and leisure-time activity for men contributed the most to total moderate/vigorous physical activity. In conclusion, most adults in Niterói are physically active.

The analysis of institutions is a widely researched area of health. The culture of organizations is understood as a symbolic possibility contained in a larger dimension, called "national culture". This premise justifies the incorporation of the social anthropological approach to the study of organizational culture. This study sought to establish the perceptions of employees of two primary healthcare services in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, regarding commonly used social navigation strategies from the theory developed by Roberto Da Matta. The results showed the relational character associated with the stereotype of the Brazilian people manifested by conflicts arising from the existence of values based on the 'individual' and the 'person'. Among them are the distortions observed between discourse and practice, and the mobilization strategies of social navigation -like "making do" - to establish a mediation between the person and the impersonal law. The organization of the services of the Niterói Family Medical Program apparently sets its employees the concrete challenge of balancing the egalitarian principle that underpins the Unified Health System(SSU) with the set of values upon which personal relations are based in Brazilian society.

Hallal P.C.,Federal University of Pelotas | Knuth A.G.,Federal University of Pelotas | Mendes M.I.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Geografia E Estatistica
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2010

The aim of this study is to describe physical activity practice among Brazilian adolescents by using data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) collected in all state capitals and the Federal District in 2009. The sample included students of the ninth year (n=60,973). It was investigated the physical activity practice seven days prior to the interview, including transportation mode, physical activity practice inside and outside the school and participation in Physical Education classes. Adolescents were classified as active if performing ≥300 min/wk of physical activity. The proportion of active adolescents was 43.1%; this figure was higher among boys (56.2%) as compared to girls (31.3%). Only half of the adolescents (49.2%) reported that had two or more Physical Education classes in the week prior to the interview. Also, 79.2% reported watching TV for two or more hours per day. Our data indicate a low proportion of active adolescents and of regular Physical Education classes, and a high prevalence of sedentary behavior. These data might be used as a baseline for the monitoring of physical activity among adolescents in Brazil, but already suggests the need of interventions for the promotion of physical activity among Brazilian adolescents.

Shining a light on the photographic archive of geographic missions assigned to do reconnaissance of the country's territory, sponsored by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the article describes the conditions under which this archive was compiled and how it can serve as a historical source. It addresses the presentation of images and the range of topics and places found in Tibor Jablonszky's work as far as the representations that this photographer constructed of female labor in Brazil during the 1950s and 1960s, from the viewpoint of a photographer working for a government agency.

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