Niterói, Brazil
Niterói, Brazil

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Novo S.P.C.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Leles D.,Instituto Biomedico | Bianucci R.,University of Turin | Bianucci R.,University of Oslo | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: L. tarentolae, the lizard-infecting species of Old World geckos, has been classified as non-pathogenic to man. While it has been demonstrated that L. tarentolae is capable of infecting human phagocytic cells and to differentiate into amastigote-like forms, there is no clear evidence for its efficient replication within macrophages. Here we provide first evidence for L. tarentolae ancient DNA sequences from bone marrow and intestines of a 300yo adult male. Methods: We identified molecular signatures of Leishmania tarentolae, the lizard-infecting species of Old World geckos, in hard and soft tissue biopsies from a Brazilian mummy (A74) uncovered in Itacambira (Brazil) and dating to the Colonial Period (end of 18th/beginning of the 19th century). Results: Our results imply that efficient replication of the parasite occurred within human macrophage and to lead to a systemic spread and visceralization in this individual. The ancient sequences show a 100% similarity with those of isolated L. tarentolae parasites grown on artificial nutrient media and a 99% similarity with two modern sequences isolated from reptiles. Conclusions: De facto, our findings re-open the debate about the potential survival of ancient L. tarentolae strain within human macrophage and its ability to spread systemically. They also raise ecological issues since it is unknown whether this parasite circulates in the reptilian reservoir in modern day Brazil or not. Investigations on fossil fauna and arthropods are needed to shed light on the interactions between saurian Leishmania and lizards in Brazil's remote and recent past. © 2015 Novo et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Figueiredo R.T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Bittencourt V.C.B.,Instituto Biomedico | Lopes L.C.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Sassaki G.,Federal University of Paraná | Barreto-Bergter E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2012

Pseudallescheria boydii is an opportunistic fungus widespread in the environment, and has recently emerged as an agent of localized as well as disseminated infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. The host response to fungi is in part dependent on the activation of evolutionary conserved receptors including Toll-like receptors and phagocytic receptors. This review will discuss the isolation and structural characterization of α-glucans and rhamnomannans from P. boydii cell wall and their roles in the induction of innate immune response. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico and UFRP
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

In this study, we analyze the importance of O-linked oligosaccharides present in peptidorhamnomannan (PRM) from the cell wall of the fungus Scedosporium prolificans for recognition and phagocytosis of conidia by macrophages. Adding PRM led to a dose-dependent inhibition of conidia phagocytosis, whereas de-O-glycosylated PRM did not show any effect. PRM induced the release of macrophage-derived antimicrobial compounds. However, O-linked oligosaccharides do not appear to be required for such induction. The effect of PRM on conidia-induced macrophage killing was examined using latex beads coated with PRM or de-O-glycosylated PRM. A decrease in macrophage viability similar to that caused by conidia was detected. However, macrophage killing was unaffected when beads coated with de-O-glycosylated PRM were used, indicating the toxic effect of O-linked oligosaccharides on macrophages. In addition, PRM triggered TNF- release by macrophages. Chemical removal of O-linked oligosaccharides from PRM abolished cytokine induction, suggesting that the O-linked oligosaccharidic chains are important moieties involved in inflammatory responses through the induction of TNF- secretion. In summary, we show that O-glycosylation plays a role in the recognition and uptake of S. prolificans by macrophages, killing of macrophages and production of pro- inflammatory cytokines.


Soares G.M.,Federal University of Fluminense | Pereira J.T.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Leal Paixao R.,Instituto Biomedico
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

Separation anxiety syndrome in animals is a behavioral disorder characterized by undesirable wanted behaviour showed by dogs when they are away from their attachment figures. In this study, with the goal of understanding the syndrome in indoor dogs from a suburb of the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), two questionnaires were used: a questionnaire to identify separation anxiety syndrome in animals (QI-SASA) and a questionnaire of support. In the surveyed population, 55.9% of the dogs presented clinical signs of SASA, being the most frequent excessive vocalizations (53.8%), destructive behaviours (46.1%), and depressive behaviour (34.6%). The results also suggest a negative impact on the life quality of the owners and dogs.


Agostinho L.A.,Instituto Biomedico | Agostinho L.A.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | dos Santos S.R.,Instituto Biomedico | Alvarenga R.M.P.,Rio de Janeiro State Federal University | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare progressive and fatal neurogenetic degenerative disease, characterized by movement and personality disorders and by progressive dementia. Its prevalence varies by ethnic origin and different genetic profiles predisposing individuals to HD in each population. The prevalence of HD is 5-10 per 100,000 individuals in Caucasian populations of North America and Western Europe. It is an autosomal dominant disease associated with the expansion of CAG-type repetitive DNA sequences in the HTT gene. This gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 4, encodes the protein huntingtin. In this study, we reviewed 17 articles about HD that report data from 2400 affected individuals from various countries around the world, including Venezuela, China, Croatia, Turkey, Germany, Italy, Brazil, Spain, Taiwan, India, the Netherlands, Russia, and the USA, with a focus on genetic profiles and intergenerational expansions or contractions of expanded alleles responsible for causing HD. We discuss the genetic characteristics of HD in different populations and any atypical cases reported in these studies. © FUNPEC-RP.


Moutinho F.F.B.,Federal University of Fluminense | do Nascimento E.R.,Federal University of Fluminense | Paixao R.L.,Instituto Biomedico
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2015

Rabies is an anthropozoonosis characterized by acute viral encephalitis with a lethality rate close to 100%, and it has undergone an epidemiologic transition in which the cycle involving chiroptera is increasing in importance. The scope of this research sought to analyze the rabies surveillance and control actions carried out in municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of zoonosis control service managers proportionately calculated in accordance with the Health Regions, according to the State Regionalization Guidance Plan. The data gathered was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Based on the results attained, the conclusion reached is that the rabies surveillance and control actions were being unsatisfactorily conducted, especially for items related to the monitoring of vampire bat colonies, viral circulation surveillance, notification and monitoring of suspect or aggressive animals, quantification of dog population and population control of stray dogs. The surveillance and control of rabies was being neglected, and was not a priority in the health services in the municipalities evaluated. © 2015, Associacao Brasileira de Pos - Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.


Riachi L.G.,Instituto Biomedico | Abi-Zaid I.E.,Instituto Biomedico | Moreira R.F.A.,Instituto Biomedico | De Maria C.A.B.,Instituto Biomedico
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion | Year: 2012

Volatiles from aqueous extract of peppermint commercial sachets were investigated through gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). Samples were prepared under similar conditions as in homemade tea. Volatiles were isolated using solid phase extraction method (SPE) with Porapak Q trap followed by desorption with acetone. Estimated mean values for short and medium chain carboxylic acids (C2-C12) and ketones lay in the range of 50-64 μg kg-1 whilst aliphatic alcohols and acyclic hydrocarbons had values lower than 6 μg kg-1. The major volatiles were terpenes (275-382 μg kg-1) that reached 89 % of the total composition. A total of 16 compounds, among them dodecane, acetoin, acetol, citral, geraniol and octanoic acid have been described by the first time in peppermint tea. These findings could be attributed to the different analytical approach employed, mainly to the use of different extraction/pre-concentration techniques. Given the apparently lower proportion of terpenes in the aqueous extract it may be that the chemical properties of the peppermint essential oil are not entirely reproduced with homemade tea.


Cardozo L.F.M.D.F.,Federal University of Fluminense | Soares L.L.,Federal University of Fluminense | Chagas M.A.,Instituto Biomedico | Boaventura G.T.,Federal University of Fluminense
Jornal de Pediatria | Year: 2010

Objective: To investigate the effects of maternal flaxseed consumption during lactation on the body weight, hematological indicators and visceral fat mass of male offspring in adulthood. Methods: Sixteen female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth. During lactation the control group (CG) was fed a casein-based diet and the flaxseed group (FG) was fed a casein-based diet containing 25% flaxseed. After weaning, male offspring were fed on commercial chow until adulthood and euthanized at 170 days for blood collection and visceral fat mass assessment. Results: Offspring of rats in the FG had lower body weight (FG = 42.69±3.06 g; CG = 47.31±4.72 g; p = 0.036) at weaning. At 170 days, lower hemoglobin levels were observed in the FG (FG = 12.30±1.28 g/dL; CG = 13.88±0.91 g/dL; p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in visceral fat mass between groups. Conclusions: Maternal consumption of a flaxseed-based diet during lactation resulted in lower body weight at weaning and lower hemoglobin levels in adulthood, when compared with the control group. Copyright © 2010 by Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria.


Nakamur P.A.M.,Instituto Biomedico | Schuab R.B.B.,Instituto Biomedico | Neves F.P.G.,Instituto Biomedico | Pereira C.F.A.,Instituto Biomedico | And 2 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2011

In this study, 100 clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from genitourinary tract specimens of non-pregnant individuals living in Rio de Janeiro were submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of macrolide resistance genes and evaluation of the genetic diversity of erythromycin-resistant isolates. By agar diffusion method, all isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, penicillin and vancomycin. Isolates were resistant to levofloxacin (1%), clindamycin (5%), erythromycin (11%) and tetracycline (83%) and were intermediated to erythromycin (4%) and tetracycline (6%). Erythromycin-resistant and intermediated isolates presented the following phenotypes: M (n = 3), constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS B, n = 5) and inductive MLS B (n = 7). Determinants of macrolide resistance genes, erm and mef, were detected in isolates presenting MLS B and M phenotypes, respectively. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profiles of erythromycin-resistant isolates were clustered into two major groups of similarity.


PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense and Instituto Biomedico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ciencia & saude coletiva | Year: 2015

Rabies is an anthropozoonosis characterized by acute viral encephalitis with a lethality rate close to 100%, and it has undergone an epidemiologic transition in which the cycle involving chiroptera is increasing in importance. The scope of this research sought to analyze the rabies surveillance and control actions carried out in municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of zoonosis control service managers proportionately calculated in accordance with the Health Regions, according to the State Regionalization Guidance Plan. The data gathered was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Based on the results attained, the conclusion reached is that the rabies surveillance and control actions were being unsatisfactorily conducted, especially for items related to the monitoring of vampire bat colonies, viral circulation surveillance, notification and monitoring of suspect or aggressive animals, quantification of dog population and population control of stray dogs. The surveillance and control of rabies was being neglected, and was not a priority in the health services in the municipalities evaluated.

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