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Niterói, Brazil

Novo S.P.C.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Leles D.,Instituto Biomedico | Bianucci R.,University of Turin | Bianucci R.,University of Oslo | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: L. tarentolae, the lizard-infecting species of Old World geckos, has been classified as non-pathogenic to man. While it has been demonstrated that L. tarentolae is capable of infecting human phagocytic cells and to differentiate into amastigote-like forms, there is no clear evidence for its efficient replication within macrophages. Here we provide first evidence for L. tarentolae ancient DNA sequences from bone marrow and intestines of a 300yo adult male. Methods: We identified molecular signatures of Leishmania tarentolae, the lizard-infecting species of Old World geckos, in hard and soft tissue biopsies from a Brazilian mummy (A74) uncovered in Itacambira (Brazil) and dating to the Colonial Period (end of 18th/beginning of the 19th century). Results: Our results imply that efficient replication of the parasite occurred within human macrophage and to lead to a systemic spread and visceralization in this individual. The ancient sequences show a 100% similarity with those of isolated L. tarentolae parasites grown on artificial nutrient media and a 99% similarity with two modern sequences isolated from reptiles. Conclusions: De facto, our findings re-open the debate about the potential survival of ancient L. tarentolae strain within human macrophage and its ability to spread systemically. They also raise ecological issues since it is unknown whether this parasite circulates in the reptilian reservoir in modern day Brazil or not. Investigations on fossil fauna and arthropods are needed to shed light on the interactions between saurian Leishmania and lizards in Brazil's remote and recent past. © 2015 Novo et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Soares G.M.,Federal University of Fluminense | Pereira J.T.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Leal Paixao R.,Instituto Biomedico
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

Separation anxiety syndrome in animals is a behavioral disorder characterized by undesirable wanted behaviour showed by dogs when they are away from their attachment figures. In this study, with the goal of understanding the syndrome in indoor dogs from a suburb of the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), two questionnaires were used: a questionnaire to identify separation anxiety syndrome in animals (QI-SASA) and a questionnaire of support. In the surveyed population, 55.9% of the dogs presented clinical signs of SASA, being the most frequent excessive vocalizations (53.8%), destructive behaviours (46.1%), and depressive behaviour (34.6%). The results also suggest a negative impact on the life quality of the owners and dogs.

Moutinho F.F.B.,Federal University of Fluminense | do Nascimento E.R.,Federal University of Fluminense | Paixao R.L.,Instituto Biomedico
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2015

Rabies is an anthropozoonosis characterized by acute viral encephalitis with a lethality rate close to 100%, and it has undergone an epidemiologic transition in which the cycle involving chiroptera is increasing in importance. The scope of this research sought to analyze the rabies surveillance and control actions carried out in municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires were distributed to a representative sample of zoonosis control service managers proportionately calculated in accordance with the Health Regions, according to the State Regionalization Guidance Plan. The data gathered was recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. Based on the results attained, the conclusion reached is that the rabies surveillance and control actions were being unsatisfactorily conducted, especially for items related to the monitoring of vampire bat colonies, viral circulation surveillance, notification and monitoring of suspect or aggressive animals, quantification of dog population and population control of stray dogs. The surveillance and control of rabies was being neglected, and was not a priority in the health services in the municipalities evaluated. © 2015, Associacao Brasileira de Pos - Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.

Quitete B.,Federal University of Fluminense | de Aguiar-Nemer A.S.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | da Silva-Fonseca V.A.,Instituto Biomedico
Revista de Psiquiatria Clinica | Year: 2012

Background: The risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among incarcerated women may be associated with drug use. Objectives: To establish the frequency of PTSD in a sample of incarcerated women and its relationship with drug use inside prison. Anxiety and depression, nature of stressors and sociodemographic data were evaluated and the sample of PTSD-positive women was compared with the one of PTSD-negative women. Methods: The study had a cross-sectional design. The PTSD was evaluated according to the DSM-IV criteria. Drug consumption was assessed with the Christo Inventory for drug consumption. Anxiety was evaluated with the Spielberger Inventory and depression with the Beck Inventory. Results: Among the 134 examined women, 40.3% showed PTSD. There was a significantly higher daily use of cocaine among women with a positive PTSD diagnosis (p < 0.01). Daily consumption of illicit drugs was reported by 53% of the assessed women in prison. Compared to PTSD-negative women, all participants diagnosed as PTSD-positive showed some degree of depression (p < 0.05). Discussion: The high prevalence of PTSD among incarcerated women is comparable to the prevalence of high-risk populations described in other studies. In spite of being in prison, consumption of illicit drugs was high. The association of PTSD with an increased cocaine use suggests a preference to consume stimulant drugs among incarcerated women with PTSD.

Figueiredo R.T.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Bittencourt V.C.B.,Instituto Biomedico | Lopes L.C.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Sassaki G.,Federal University of Parana | Barreto-Bergter E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2012

Pseudallescheria boydii is an opportunistic fungus widespread in the environment, and has recently emerged as an agent of localized as well as disseminated infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. The host response to fungi is in part dependent on the activation of evolutionary conserved receptors including Toll-like receptors and phagocytic receptors. This review will discuss the isolation and structural characterization of α-glucans and rhamnomannans from P. boydii cell wall and their roles in the induction of innate immune response. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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